Empiricism vs. Rationalism (01:06)
Rationalism taught that humans acquire knowledge by reasoning. Empiricism taught that knowledge derives from experience. Immanuel Kant’s work brought the two opposing schools together.
Basis for Spinoza's and Leibniz's Beliefs (03:23)
Spinoza modeled his “Ethics” on Euclid’s geometry to explain everything. Leibniz, a great polymath, invented calculus. The two philosophers with opposite personalities met in 1676.
Philosophy and Reality of the World (03:06)
Both Spinoza and Leibniz believed there was an underlying reality of the world. Spinoza’s other world is unitary or having only one true thing. Leibniz’s had an array of spiritual centers.
Spinoza's Vision of the World (05:58)
Spinoza’s geometric system contended that the world was an absolute unitary entity. God or nature was the one infinite substance. God perfected nature and He coexisted with everything.
Spinoza's Philosophy of Mind and Matter (02:56)
According to Spinoza, God or nature is the one infinite substance that contains everything. There are many attributes of this substance,but only two, mind and matter, are accessible to humans.
Spinoza's Philosophy on Free Will (03:22)
Spinoza’s deductive system leaves no room for free will. Human action is based on passive emotions and active emotions. Discovering the inner sources of actions and emotions is liberating.
Spinoza and Religion (03:46)
Spinoza is a pantheist. His attitudes are religious even if they are directed at objects that the culture does not recognize as religious. His Jewish background influenced his religious philosophies.
Leibniz's Philosophy on Monards and Truth (08:37)
A monard, Leibniz’s word for substance, is a unit with many properties. Everything complex must be analyzed into something simple. There are truths of reason and truths of fact, Leibniz believed.
Leibniz on Mind, Matter, and Free Will (06:04)
Leibniz believed matter is not real but phenomena. God pre-established harmony. Every individual or monard is perfectly self-determined since designed by God. Free will is each monard’s unique nature.
Spinoza's and Leibniz's Contributions (05:08)
Spinoza and Leibniz contributed to different strands. In their own ways, both tried to find a place for religion in a world of mathematics. Both were anxious to combine religion and science.
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