"Holocaust" and "Genocide" (02:02)
Lemkin coined the term "genocide" from the Greek word "genos," race or tribe, and Latin suffix "cide," to kill. "Holocaust:" a single, vast tragedy resulting in torture and death of large numbers of victims.
Survivors' Tales of Brutality (03:55)
Cambodian, Armenian, Rwandan, Hungarian and Kosovo survivors of genocide recall tales of brutality.
The Bloody Twentieth Century (03:11)
Boyi, Marker, Fixico and Bauer share their thoughts on genocide. More people died as a result of genocide and mass murder in the 20th century than all wars combined.
Ethnic Cleansing (03:14)
The term "ethnic cleansing" emerges. Wiesel describes it as crimes against humanity. Scheffer says most victims are civilians, not armed forces. Bosnia and Sierra Leone are examples.
The Threads of Genocide (03:08)
Acts of genocide are driven by religious beliefs, ideology, fear, or a sense of superiority or danger. Common threads are crises, lack of democracy, a sense of nationalism and a history of violence.
Genocide's Early Roots (03:27)
Human violence and mass murder are documented in biblical times. Perpetrators find justification for their actions. The roots of genocide date back to the dawn of civilization.
Holy Wars and Crusades (03:56)
Ancient conquerers slaughtered citizens who would not adopt their ways. Holy wars and crusades were fought over differences in religious beliefs.
Witch Hunts and Colonization (01:39)
Witch hunts occurred in Europe and North America as a reaction to heresy. When Europeans colonized America, native American tribes began to disappear.
Is Slavery Genocide? (02:37)
In the late 18th century, the English annihalated the Tasmanian people. Since African tribes were lost during the slave trade, some consider slavery a form of genocide.
Genocide Among Indigenous People (03:16)
The Hispaniola, Aztec and Inca nations were greatly affected by European occupation. Native American populations were reduced from millions to thousands.
Industrialization and Genocide (04:03)
Industrialization in the 20th century widened the gap between rich and poor and created weapons of mass destruction. World leaders controlled the masses, leading to genocide.
The Herero Genocide (01:49)
The first case of genocide in the 20th century occurs in 1904, when Germany attempts to colonize South Africa. The Herero tribe revolts; its members are exterminated or enslaved.
The Armenian Genocide (04:58)
Sultan Abdul Hamid orders the massacre of Armenians in Turkey. European countries ignore it. German Kaiser honors Hamid. Many scholars consider this the prelude to the Nazi holocaust.
The Young Turks (05:19)
The "Young Turks," led by the Pashas, overthrow Hamid, but continue to slaughter "the detested race." Germans refuse to help. Armenian survivors recall the tragedy.
Turks Deny Armenian Genocide (03:12)
Turkey refuses to admit genocide occurred. Denial may open the door for further genocide and diminshes the lessons learned. Civilization must be based on the affirmation of truth.
Recognizing Armenian Genocide (03:09)
Turkish military tribunal confirms mass murder.
A resolution to officially recognize Armenian genocide is held in the U.S. European nations and the Vatican follow suit.
Modern Awareness of Genocide (01:24)
Today's society is paying closer attention to acts of genocide. Pasha, Stalin, Tojo, Hitler, Pot, Pinochet, Akayesu, Milosevic and Wiranto are recognized as perpetrators of crimes against humanity.
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