Credits and Introduction: Obesity in America: A National Crisis (00:32)
Credits and Introduction: Obesity in America: A National Crisis
Chapter 1: The Prevalence of Obesity (02:17)
Figures from 1999-2004 show 67% of adults are overweight and obese. In the mid-1980s, overweight and obesity began to grow at an alarming rate. Overweight and obesity in children has reached worrisome levels.
Morbid Obesity (02:17)
Morbid obesity is characterized by body mass indexes, or BMIs, greater than 40. Super obesity is characterized by a BMI greater than 50, and it has increased by 75%. America's biggest growth is in the morbid obesity group. Heavy people are getting heavier.
Obesity and Health Risks (02:24)
In America, from 3-8 million adults are morbidly obese. This condition creates a multitude of health risks. Secondary diseases of obesity include cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, arthritis, and some cancers.
Costs of Obesity (03:05)
The CDC estimates that the cost to manage obesity in the U.S. is $117 billion a year; $61 billion of that is in direct costs, and $56 billion is in indirect costs. The cost of pediatric obesity increased by 549% from 1970 to 2000.
Increased Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (02:11)
Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the U.S. has climbed from 5.6 million cases in 1980 to 17.4 million cases in 2007. Though the U.S. has the highest percentage of obesity, many other countries are not far behind.
Causes of Obesity (03:28)
The causes of obesity are still being discussed by most scientists. Causes include genetics, behavior, metabolic disturbances, inactivity, and environmental influences. Genetics and behavioral causes are explained and illustrated.
Metabolic Causes of Obesity (01:19)
Metabolic causes of obesity and lack of lifestyle activity are explained and illustrated. A discussion of the combination of age, dietary habits, lack of physical activity and REE (resting energy expenditure) is included.
Self-Destructive Diet (05:57)
Since the mid-1980s, Americans have been consuming alarming amounts of sugars, fats, and sodium. The American diet is self-destructive. About 2/3 of weight gain in America is a result of increased intake of sugary beverages. Discover how one man consumes 371 lbs. of sugar a year.
Soda Consumption (02:18)
From 1947 to 2000, the carbonated beverage industry has increased 350%, a sizable increase that has greatly impoverished eating habits by displacing milk out of the main diet. In 1942, the AMA already knew the dangers of sugar consumption.
Sugar in Soft Drinks (03:01)
The problems with soft drink intake in recent decades are increased weight gain, increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and increased risk of tooth decay. Americans consume on average 20 fluid ounces per person per day, or 54 gallons per year.
Infiltration of Soft Drinks into Cultures (03:08)
Soft drinks have infiltrated many facets of North American culture and have through globalization infected the cultures of many other countries. Obesity has been influenced by the availability of cheap vegetable oils and by increased consumption of dairy products.
Soft Drinks Linked to Weight Gain (03:17)
In 2007 a meta-analysis of 88 studies linked soft drink consumption with higher calorie intake and elevated body weight. It was also linked with type 2 diabetes and associated with suboptimal intake of milk calcium. A review of studiers reveals a very dark side to soda consumption.
Diet Sodas (01:02)
Diet sodas were introduced in the 1970s. Since then, production has increased significantly and now represents 25% of total soda production in the U.S. Nevertheless, obesity rates have continued to rise in the past 10 years even though consumption of sugar substitutes has doubled.
Obesity Risk from Diet Sodas (01:25)
Though diet soda consumption continues to increase, studies show that nearly all the obesity risk from soft drinks comes from diet sodas. Major findings are that increased intake of no-calorie sugar substitutes could promote increased caloric intake and body weight gain.
Metabolic Syndrome (04:47)
Soft drink consumption exceeding 1 per day may be associated with metabolic syndrome, a cluster of factors that significantly boosts the chance of having a heart attack or stroke and developing diabetes.
Obesity: Abundance of Calorically-Dense Foods (00:59)
The sudden increases in over-nutrition in Third World developing country can be attributed to the surge in supermarkets, prevalence of energy-dense foods, and increased consumption of animal-based foods.
High Energy Density Foods (02:58)
The availability of high energy dense foods has contributed greatly to obesity. Lower calorically dense foods such as produce are being gradually displaced from the North American diet. A fast food breakfast is analyzed for calories and nutritional value compared to a healthier meal.
What about Pizza? (01:33)
In recent years, populations in Third World countries are also consuming greater quantities of animal-based foods that are more calorically dense. Pizzas are an example of animal-based food very high in calories.
Why Are Americans Eating So Much? (04:03)
Researchers conclude that the rise in obesity must be the result of increased caloric intake. High calorie foods are more available and tend to be less expensive than fresh food. Obesity among lower income earners is higher than that of the affluent.
What Does Wall Street Have To Do with It? (02:49)
In the early 1980s, stockholders demanded higher short term returns on investment. Food companies developed marketing strategies to encourage more between-meals snacking. Americans were eating, for example, in bookstores and hair salons, and consuming larger portions more frequently.
Eating Frequency (02:09)
Not only have portions grown significantly since the 1970s, but people have also added more eating times per day on top of meals. Switching from water to sugary beverages adds even more calories. Behavioral patterns around eating have changed significantly in the last 40 years.
Obesity and Geographic Locations (00:57)
Prevailing theories about the spread of obesity include geographical nearness of Mexico to the U.S., migrations from rural to urban settings, and more. Yet, obesity is found in some rural areas of the world where as many as half the women are obese.
Obesity and Emotional Disorders (05:00)
Evidence is strong that many adults, children, and adolescents are chronically afflicted with varying degrees of depression. Studies show a correlation between obesity and abnormal temperaments and major depression.
Food Fills a Personal Void (01:03)
It has been argued that food and drink are avidly and compulsively consumed to fill a void and emptiness that is so vast it swallows increasing numbers of people into a chasm of hopelessness. Binge eating is contributing to rising obesity rates.
What's Wrong with th North American Diet? (02:57)
Highly processed food, which make up a significant part of their diet, contains taste additives that cause the food to be overly palatable. These foods contain very little satiating fiber volume and are depleted of a vast array of micronutrients. These foods release self-addictive opiates.
Obesity: Genetic Traits & Cultural Patterns of Behavior (03:32)
The Pima Indians have undergone dietary adaptations for hundreds of years as a result of a feast-or-famine agricultural reality. Genetics, changing lifestyles, poverty, and more, have created a people suffering from obesity.
Obesity and Frequent Dieting (04:03)
Frequent dieting suggests the cycle of weight loss followed by weight gain similar to the Pima Indians.In theory, the greater the amount of lean tissue developed, the greater the resting energy expenditure. Less lean mass relative to adipose tissue lowers the resting energy expenditure; thus losing weight is more difficult.
Assessment of Obesity Part 1 (03:11)
There are a number of ways to assess obesity. In this segment the following assessment tools are explained and illustrated: body mass indicator (BMI) and hydrodensitometry.
Assessment of Obesity Part 2 (03:26)
There are a number of ways to assess obesity. In this segment the following assessment tools are explained and illustrated: air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and bioelectrical impedance.
Assessment of Obesity: Waist Circumference (02:45)
Waist circumference measurements indicate the volume of visceral adipose tissue. Fat in this area puts people at risk of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes.
Treatments of Obesity--Weight Loss Programs (03:35)
Despite weight loss programs based on caloric restrictions, people continue to become obese the world over. Success in these programs by medical standards is a 5-10% weight loss for one year. Weight management is about food intake and energy expenditure.
How Can the Obese Lose Weight? (05:01)
Why are the obese not getting thinner given America's obsession with dieting? Hear a mother's concern about her daughter's weight, and listen to the daughter's comments. The mother is also obese. Both mother and daughter describe the daughter's eating habits.
Sensible Weight Loss (03:29)
A college junior talks about her slow weight loss. She restricts her daily calories and eats 5 small meals throughout the day instead of 3 big meals. People who do not have a weight problem do not think about food unless they are hungry.
Dieting and Weight Gain (04:20)
A 2007 review concludes that one important condition for weight gain in later years is previous dieting. Weight loss maintenance is consistent with regular exercise. This segment includes a brief analysis of a number of studies that correlate weight gain and dieting.
Exercise and Activity: Weight Gain or Loss/Class Discussion (00:43)
The hard environment in which humans have developed has made us active, resourceful creatures, well prepared to be hunters, fishermen, and agricultural workers. Our appetite was never designed as a food regulating mechanism for persons who spend most of their time sitting in a chair.
Physiological Impact of Dieting (03:04)
A homeostatic mechanism in the body involves two systems that respond to dieting and hunger: the hypothalamus and the viscera in association with a host of hormones. Hormones signal the brain that satiety or hunger is the condition of the body.
Unhealthy Relationship with Food (02:34)
A college student whose obesity continues shares her experience with weight gain. Dieting encourages the mind and body to have an unhealthy relationship with food. Unhealthy dieting practices are associated with a 3 times higher risk of becoming overweight over 5 years.
Weight Loss Strategies (04:58)
Weight loss strategies include meal replacement drinks in addition to very low-calorie diets that limit total caloric intake to 300-500 kcal per day. When there is a disturbance in the homeostatic mechanism, the hunger mechanism is meant to restore that balance. A physician describes problems of adolescent weight gain.
Essential Physical Activity (02:45)
Exercise might be a deciding factor in solving obesity. Epidemiological data confirms levels of activity in adults and in children have declined significantly since the 1950s. In America, there seems to be a disdain for walking. A college student talks about her exercise program.
Walking Exercise (03:17)
Walking is an important activity for energy expenditure. A formula that involved resting energy expenditure and low activity factor reveals the total caloric energy needs to maintain weight. To lose weight, one of more of the variables must be adjusted.
Persistent Weight Problem (04:21)
A mother and daughter share their feelings and experiences with the daughter's weight problem and attempts to get it handled. Energy expenditure through exercise that burns at least 2,682 kcal per week seems to be necessary for weight loss.
Time to Exercise (02:51)
People often claim they do not have the time to exercise. It requires a shift in priorities to make time for it. Take every opportunity to walk, climb stairs, and to avoid sedentary activities. People must be self-motivated to commit to regular and meaningful exercise.
Exercise Program for Overweight People (04:59)
Viewers learn which exercises contribute to the most weight loss. A fitness expert describes how an overweight person can slowly add exercise into a daily routine.
Purpose of Regular Exercise (02:49)
The basis for regular exercise is not only to expend calories but also to strengthen and build muscle. The purpose is to proportionally increase lean mass or muscle relative to the fat mass in the body. Nationally, college freshmen tend to gain 15 pounds in their first year of school.
Daily Caloric Expenditure 1950s (01:02)
In the 1950s, the average North American reference man weighing 65 kg would have expended on average 3,200 kcal per day. This reference man in the 1950s was a farmer. The 1950s heavy laborer would have expended 4,400 kcal per day.
Energy Burned in 2005 (03:44)
In the 1980s, the reference man was more sedentary, bringing the expended kcal down to 800. Calories expended outside of work also decreased significantly, and the number of calories consumed has greatly increased. Viewers see a comparative breakdown of activities and energy expenditures between 1950 and 2005.
America's Dietary Practices Are Catastrophic (01:28)
The literature seems to conclude that restrictive diets alone do not appear to be viable therapies that can sustain weight loss, yet this remains an enduring therapy. America's dietary practices are a national catastrophe. Three dietary elements contaminate the landscape. These are discussed and illustrated.
Intervention in Obesity Crisis (03:29)
Is intervention already too late? There may be only a few solutions left to address obesity inasmuch as dieting seems to be an abysmal failure. By age 5, most children have been taken hostage by a toxic food environment. Within narrow limits, it might be possible to educate pregnant women and parents to resort to breastfeeding and nutritious food consumption.
Importance of Breastfeeding (02:01)
Growing numbers of families and mothers with careers cripple the likelihood of prolonged breastfeeding, which can impart significant health benefits to children. Only 13% of mothers breastfeed for 6 months. Today's households are challenged in many ways that prevent them from gathering for regular meals.
Prenatal Nutrition Intervention (01:44)
There is a growing sense of urgency that prenatal nutrition intervention programs begin in haste. The percent of babies born under 5.5 pounds has been gradually increasing. Obesity is an epidemic that is devastating the American landscape.
Role of Government in Matters of Public Health (02:20)
The historical basis for government intervention in matters of public health is well documented. During the second half of the 19th century, a sanitary revolution swept the U.S. and Europe. Can the same strategies that overcame the cholera epidemic be applied to the obesity epidemic?
Intervention Critically Needed in Obesity Epidemic (03:43)
Current strategists in the field of government controls contend that taxing junk foods and fast foods can greatly curb a population's purchasing trend and prevent over-consumption of these foods without having to legislate them out of the marketplace. Other strategies are proposed and discussed.
Credits: Obesity in America: A National Crisis (00:40)
Credits: Obesity in America: A National Crisis
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