Constitutionalist Army (02:15)
On August 20, 1914, the Constitutionalist Army entered Mexico City; divisions among the Revolutionary factions threatened civil war.
Constitutional Convention (04:28)
The Constitutional Convention convened in Aguascalientes where delegates signed the flag. Zapata and Villa defended the Plan of Ayala. Carranza, Villa and Zapata are asked to resign.
Zapata and Villa Meet in Mexico City (03:01)
Carranza's Government in Veracruz, with Obregón's support, threatened Gutiérrez. Villa and Zapata, who met in Xochimilco and agreed to fight against Carranza, backed the interim president.
Carranza Adds to the Plan of Guadalupe (02:20)
Carranza's additions to the Plan of Guadalupe included land reform, judicial and labor reforms, civil divorce, and more. Zapata takes Puebla and Villa takes control of Jalisco; the country is in civil war by 1915.
Collapse of the Interim Government (01:56)
Eulalio Gutiérrez’s government, paralyzed between Carranza and Villa, escaped to San Luis Potosí. The Convention named Roque Gonzalez Garza president and reinstated Villa. Obregón takes Mexico City.
Battles for Celaya (05:33)
Obregón's entrenched troops overcome Villa's assaults in Celaya. Villa rearmed and confronted Obregón again, wounding him, but losing the battle and much of his army. Carranza takes Mexico City.
Economic Crisis (05:45)
By 1915, Mexico was in economic crisis; four years of war impoverished the country. Damaged railroads isolated areas that coined their own currency, causing inflation and monetary chaos.
Gonzalez Garza Burns Zapata's Agrarian Utopia (02:39)
While Carranza's Constitutionalist Army was occupied in the north, Zapata implemented his agrarian reforms in Morelos. In 1916, Carranza pushed the Zapatistas into the mountains. Gonzalez Garza's scorched earth policy was devastating.
Carranza Faces Dispersed Challenges (02:13)
In the fall of 1916, the Zapatistas renewed the attack and villages organized militias. Carranza lost his allies in Yucatan and Oaxaca.
Villa Defeated at Aguascalientes (04:18)
Villa demanded money from hacendados and U.S. mining companies; he loses at Aguascalientes and Hermosillo. In Torreón, Villa conscripted men from an admiring crowd at gunpoint. After Pablo Lopez killed U.S. mining experts and Villistas attacked Columbus, New Mexico, Villa became a wanted man.
Pershing's Expeditionary Force in Mexico (02:01)
In March 1916, General John Pershing led an expeditionary force into Mexico to capture Villa. After a skirmish in Parral, Carranza insists on immediate withdrawal. President Wilson mobilizes the reserves, and Mexico fears a U.S. invasion.
Expeditionary Forces Leave Mexico (02:04)
In July 1916, Villa took Jiménez from Carrancistas and attacked the capital of Chihuahua. Despite Carranza's rejection of U.S. demands, Pershing withdrew in February 1917. Villa remained an obstacle to the pacification of the country.
Credits: The Civil War: The Mexican Revolution-Part 3 (01:25)
Credits: The Civil War: The Mexican Revolution-Part 3
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