Segments in this Video

Introduction: The Reaction (01:20)


The introduction is a brief summary of Francisco I. Madero's attempts to end Porfirio Díaz' hold on power according to the Constitution, and failing that, the revolution. Madero's choice to install an interim presidency gave time for opposing factions to regroup, the revolution to continue, and bring about his own death.

Interim President Francisco León de la Barra (02:30)

Porfirio Díaz was exiled, but not Porfirismo. Interim President, Francisco León de la Barra, disarmed the rebels while maintaining the federal army and sent troops against Zapata's rebels in Morelos. General Bernardo Reyes returned for the 1910 elections

Disarming of Zapata (01:37)

Victoriano Huerta's troops occupy Morelos. Madero convinces Zapata to disarm and accept a new Morelos governor by promising to implement his Plan of San Luis.

Division Between Madero and Zapata (01:38)

Huerta's troops advance toward Yautepec despite Madero's conciliatory meeting with Zapata who now views Madero as a traitor. The new governor of Morelos orders reprisals against the Zapatistas. Zapata eludes capture.

1911 Elections (03:10)

De la Barra selects Pino Suárez as his succesor. Zapata attacks near Mexico City. De la Barra reacts, replacing Huerta in Morelos. Madero wins the 1911 elections with Pino Suárez as vice-president. Raoul Madero tries to reconcile with the Zapatistas.

Discontent During Madero's Presidency (04:40)

Madero's presidency brings about the most respect for civil liberties since Benito Juárez, but rebels and Porfirists were dissatisfied. Bernardo Reyes returns and is jailed near the capital. In Chihuahua, Orozco demands land reform. Villa remains loyal to Madero.

Madero's Presidential Reforms (01:14)

Madero introduced social and political reforms including the universal and direct vote, workers'rights to unionize, and the liberty of the press that betrayed him and raised anxiety of the population.

The Ten Tragic Days (01:42)

February 9, 1913, military cadets take the National Palace while the military leaders free Reyes and Felix Díaz from jail. Troops loyal to Madero retake the Palace. Bernardo Reyes dies and Felix Díaz retreats to the Ciudadela. Madero names Huerta commandante and goes to Cuernavaca for reinforcements.

Huerta's Betrayal (02:26)

It seemed the coup was contained, but Huerta betrayed Madero and secretly allied himself with Felix Díaz. They bombard the city, not each other. Ten days later, the combatants meet in the U.S. Embassy and agree to a Huerta presidency, succeeded by Felix Díaz. Madero is jailed, then assassinated.

Venustiano Carranza Forms the Constitutional Army (03:39)

Porfirists, foreign investors and part of the middle class favor Huerta's presidency, objectors are shot. Pascual Orozco becomes brigadier as Huerta strengtens his army. Venustiano Carranza, governor of Coahuila, begins his campaign against the usurper, forming the Constitutional Army.

Álvaro Obregón Joins Carranza (01:52)

In Sonora, Álvaro Obregón joins Carranza's Constitutional Army, as well as military veteran Felipe Ángeles. Carranza didn't appreciate revolutionaries Villa and Zapata.

Pancho Villa Replaces Pascual Orozco in the División del Norte (03:24)

In Chihuahua, Villa replaces the traitor Orozco leading the revolutionaries. Villa attacks railroads in the northwest. General Tomás Urbino takes the capital of Durango and with Villa joins the División del Norte. Villa captures Torreón, while federals troops defend cities with new recruits.

Zapatistas Spread their Agrarian Revolution (02:00)

The Zapatista agrarian revolt in Morelos expands to other states near Mexico City. Zapata revises the Plan of Ayala and calls for Huerta's removal. Revolutionaries of the northern states grow stronger despite the U.S. arms embargo. Huerta sends General Robles and his troops against Zapata.

Huerta, The Usurper (02:29)

Freedom of the press and local governments suffer under Huerta whose priority is to militarize the country. Generals replace governors. Felix Díaz' ministers are removed from the cabinet. Huerta dissolves the Chamber of Deputies and adversaries are jailed or killed.

Fraudulent Elections (01:52)

President Wilson removed U.S. support of Huerta's government and proposed new elections, but fraud helps Huerta fill the legislature. The railroads were destroyed and agriculture had suffered during the revolution, and under Huerta's inept government.

Pancho Villa Takes Chihuahua (02:51)

Villa attracted outstanding Maderistas to his army. He cleverly takes Ciudad Juárez by surprise and overcomes Orozco in Tierra Blanca. As governor of Chihuahua, Villa confiscated haciendas, helped army widows, and created schools, but Rodolfo Fierro was his chief executioner.

Álvaro Obregón, Commander of the Constitutional Army in the Northwest (01:35)

In 1914, Villa's División del Norte, well armed and organized, headed toward Mexico City, overcoming Huerta's entrenched federal forces while Obregón's army took Sinaloa, Nayarit;, and Jalisco.

The Revolutionary Armies Advance Toward Mexico City (02:51)

In the south, the Zapatistas capture Chilpancingo, Guerrero. Meanwhile, U.S. Marines invade Veracruz. Villa captures Zacatecas, dealing a decisive blow to Huerta's federal army. Carranza impedes Villa's advance, leaving open the way to Mexico City for Obregón.

Credits: The Reaction: The Mexican Revolution-Part 2 (01:23)

Credits: The Reaction: The Mexican Revolution-Part 2

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This program presents Francisco I. Madero's efforts to end Porfirio Díaz hold on power, and the reaction to Madero's government reforms. (In Spanish)

Length: 45 minutes

Item#: BVL93879

ISBN: 978-1-68272-131-5

Copyright date: ©1999

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