Introduction: Art and Anatomy (02:30)
Dr. Adam Rutherford opens the program about the relationship of art and anatomical illustration referring to three influential artists and anatomists, Rembrandt, the Hunter brothers and Henry Gray.
Rembrandt: "The Anatomy Lesson of Nicolaes Tulp" (02:55)
During the Dutch Golden Age, anatomical art appeared in galleries. "The Anatomy Lesson of Nicolaes Tulp," is a fiction as the dissection would have been in a theater and begun with the internal organs.
Dissection of the Human Hand (01:45)
Both Galen and Vesalius were fascinated by the dissection of the arm, and Dr.Tulp wanted to associate himself with them in his commissioned painting. See a modern dissection of the forearm. For Tulp, examination of the hand showed the divine creation.
Rembrandt in Amsterdam (02:17)
Rembrandt benefited from Amsterdam's economic and scientific resurgence, but bankruptcy took his collections, including body parts. He was commissioned to paint "The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Joan Deyman."
Rembrandt: "The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Deyman" (03:16)
Dr. Tulp's Anatomy Lesson refers back to Galen's classical anatomy, but Rembrandt's" Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Deyman" relates more to Vesalius. In a dissection theater, Deyman seems to search for the soul in the brain. René Descartes sited the soul in the pineal gland in the brain.
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Frederik Ruysch" (05:07)
Dr. Frederik Ruysch commissioned paintings of his anatomy lessons from artists Jan van Neck and Adriaen Backer. Dr. Ruysch's theories benefited Dutch obstetrics , other medical improvements and preservation techniques that left samples we see today.
William and John Hunter: Anatomists of Pregnancy (04:07)
The art of anatomy took a giant leap forward in London with the Hunter brothers, anatomist William and surgeon John, and their 1760 work resulting in William Hunter's "Anatomy of the Gravid Uterus Exhibited in Figures," illustration by Jan van Riemsdyk.
Hunter School of Anatomy (02:46)
In 18th century England, anatomy was informing surgery, and in 1746, William Hunter began an anatomy school where students did their own dissections. Bodies were dug up, creating an industry of body snatching.
Hunter's Artful Realism in Anatomy (03:43)
Jan van Riemsdyk created accurate illustrations for William Hunter's anatomy book over 22 years, sticking to Hunter's demand for truth. The Hunter collection of preserved samples were designed to be eye-catching.
Hunterian Art Gallery in Glasgow (02:04)
William Hunter invested in art, now collected at Glasgow's Hunterian Art Gallery, that included works by Rubens, Rembrandt and Hogarth. The Royal Academy of Art and Joshua Reynolds promoted the art of design, and called on William Hunter for anatomical lectures.
John Hunter: the Surgeon (03:22)
John Hunter pursued a career in surgery, pioneering new treatments for aneurysms and medical experiments to understand the healthy and diseased body. Unlike his brother, John was open to the idea of a non-divine explanation of human anatomy. The brothers fall out.
Marriage of Science and Art (01:19)
Two separate Hunterian Museums testify to the brothers' differences, William's obsession with art, and John's obsession with science and nature. Both sought truth and accuracy, shown in the" Anatomy of the Gravid Uterus."
Gray's Anatomy (03:06)
The still used "Gray's Anatomy" was the creation of anatomist Henry Gray and his illustrator, Henry Carter. Anesthetics allowed surgeons to perform longer and more common procedures. They needed an accessible anatomy textbook, with precise illustrations.
Dr. Henry Carter's Illustrations (03:13)
Carter's illustrations are very functional as a teaching tool. Gray and Carter were both doctors at St. George's Hospital and worked together in the dissecting studio.
Falling Out of Collaborators (03:00)
"Gray's Anatomy" was completed in 1857, but Gray and Carter had a disagreement over payments and acknowledgement. Carter left for a college in Bombay, India, and Gray demoted Carter on the first page of the proof. Carter made significant medical contributions in India.
Modern Medical Imaging (05:00)
Gray died four years after the book was finished. "Gray's Anatomy" became the standard textbook. It has been revised and updated, but the new way of teaching uses online imaging. Medical imaging provides information without the need for dissection.
Credits: Beauty of Anatomy: Part 2 (00:37)
Credits: Beauty of Anatomy: Part 2
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