Introduction: Inside the Bardo Museum, Tunisia: Museum Secrets (00:50)
The narrator lists highlights of the Bardo Museum in Tunis, Tunisia.
The narrator summarizes the geography of Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum reflects its mix of African, European and Middle-Eastern influences. Star Wars was shot in Tunisia.
Lars Homestead (02:07)
See the Tunisian Muslim architecture on which the Lars homestead is based. Berber tribes dwell underground to beat the heat; see a dwelling used in Star Wars.
Jedi mysticism may be based on Sufism. Sufis believe music helps believers attain a higher state of being; see a ritual.
Rome Versus Carthage (01:43)
Hannibal led Carthage against Rome but was defeated. Rome sought revenge and laid siege to Carthage, but found its walls very formidable. So how did they conquer Carthage?
Reconstructed Catapult (01:27)
The Bardo Museum has reconstructed a Roman catapult machine from a bronze cylinder salvaged in a ship wreck.
Roman Catapult Machines (02:22)
Experts demonstrate the use of recreated Roman catapults. The catapults would not have been able to penetrate Carthage's walls.
Roman Sack of Carthage (01:31)
The Romans built a platform and fired catapults over Carthage's walls on defenders. They scaled the walls and massacred the people.
Evidence of Carthaginian Child Sacrifice (02:07)
Greek and Roman historians wrote of babies sacrificed to Baal Hammon. Excavation of a Carthaginian cemetery, named the Tophet, reveals artistic evidence and the burnt bones of babies.
Questioning Carthaginian Child Sacrifice (02:35)
Evidence from the Tophet called into question Greek and Roman accounts of child sacrifice. The Tophet could be merely a special burial place for infants, none of whom are buried in the main cemetery.
Carthaginians Bury Stillborn Infants (01:48)
Schwartz examined the bones of babies at the Tophet; some proved to be stillborn fetuses; human tooth structure changes at the moment of birth.
Coliseum in Tunisia (02:21)
During Roman rule, El Djem in Tunisia built a coliseum, which hosted gladiator games.
Reality of Gladiator Fights (03:44)
Gladiator games differed from their Hollywood depiction. Games promoters owned gladiators. Referees tried to prevent deaths. The death signal was to end the suffering of a mortally wounded gladiator.
Baths and Water (01:28)
Tunisians sought to Romanize but lacked sufficient water for the public baths that were central to Roman social life. Emperor Hadrian ordered that they be supplied with water during a drought.
Engineering Problem (01:56)
Roman engineers sought to make water flow from mountain spring Zaghouan to Carthage, adapting aqueduct technology for North African terrain.
Engineering Tools (01:28)
Roman engineers used a surveyor's tool, the groma, to find the best root for their aqueduct system. They measured its gradient using a chorobates.
Construction of Aqueducts (01:53)
Roman overseers enslaved North Africans to build aqueducts which brought water from Zaghouan to Carthage, allowing the construction of baths and adoption of Roman lifestyle.
The Arabs improved on the Greek astrolabe, which when sighted on the noon day sun reveals your destination from the equator and proved important for travelers in the Sahara.
Berber camel caravans crossed the Sahara desert to trade Roman goods. Camels store water in their humps and have other desert adaptations.
Leading Camels to Water (02:14)
Camels are often uncooperative. Desert dwellers consider it unwise to beat them into compliance, fearing they will bide their time and take revenge.
Contemporary Camel Caravan (00:57)
A camel caravan takes tourists on exhibitions. A caravan member talks about the need for self-reliance far away from cities and hospitals.
Credits: Inside the Bardo Museum, Tunisia: Museum Secrets (Series 3) (00:56)
Credits: Inside the Bardo Museum, Tunisia: Museum Secrets (Series 3)
For additional digital leasing and purchase options contact a media consultant at 800-257-5126
(press option 3) or firstname.lastname@example.org.