Integration and the Civil Rights Movement came at a cost for black institutions and black communities. Integration did not lead to equity. A new black consciousness emerged when America began desegregating.
Black Power (03:47)
The movement began in 1966 after the black community achieved civil rights goals on paper but not in reality. It attracted people because the systemic racism of America did not change.
Black Arts Movement (03:25)
The movement was a way for black people to have their own art and culture. Much of the art dealt with the trauma of racism, segregation, and the Civil Rights Movement.
Black Women Writers (05:31)
Toni Morrison was a writer and feminist, who came out of the Black Arts Movement. She used her position at Random House to highlight other black female writers.
Black Fashion (05:03)
Eunice Johnson, the wife of "Ebony Magazine" founder John Johnson, used the magazine to create a space for black people in fashion. The Ebony Fashion Fair toured throughout the country, raising $51 million for black charities.
Black National Political Convention (06:56)
By 1972, effects of the Voting Rights Act became apparent with more black people in government. The convention brought together black voters across the political spectrum.
Black LGBTQ Spaces (02:53)
The mainstream gay liberation movement, which began in 1969, left out most people of color. Black LGBTQ people created their own spaces to feel safe. Paradise Garage opened in 1976.
Changing Black Life (05:52)
Artists created Hip Hop from a specific black point of view; it spoke to people throughout the world. Hip Hop frequently touches on issues important to the black community, like police brutality and mass incarceration. The view of HBCUs shifted in the 1980s to a place for activism.
Black Lives Matter (05:13)
President Barack Obama's election, like many gains for black Americans, met racist backlash. The Black Lives Matter movement began with the murder of Trayvon Martin in 2013. The movement grew through social media and questioned the mainstream media's narrative about police killings.
Racial Justice and Social Media (05:02)
Black Twitter combines comedy and cultural critique in a new way. Social media and cellphone cameras are instruments to fight racial injustice, exemplified in the murder of George Floyd. Social media allowed people to organize protests throughout the country.
Black Life in America (04:09)
Racism has shaped every generation of American life. Black networks, spaces, and colleges have created places for black people to thrive and enact change.
Credits: "Making Black America: Episode 4" (00:59)
Credits: "Making Black America: Episode 4"
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