Rise of Fascism (03:07)
Bernard Levy argues that fascism developed in response to Russia's October Revolution. French intellectuals saw Mussolini and Hitler as uniting nationalists and socialists under a new political order.
February 6th Crisis (02:40)
French intellectuals who survived World War I rebelled against bourgeois democracy; view footage of right wing Paris demonstrations in 1934.
Agitating for Monarchy (01:37)
Maurice Bardeche discusses the right-wing rebellion against corruption in French democracy, it is based on Charles Maurras' ideas.
Flirting with Fascism (04:13)
French intellectuals were attracted by the youthful vigor of Nazi Germany and collaborated with German artists and writers. Hear Robert Brasillach's descriptions of Dachau and Nuremberg rallies.
Collaborating with Nazism (01:39)
Hear from French intellectuals who supported Hitler's fight against Bolshevism.
French Intellectual Anti-Semitism (02:59)
View propaganda films about the "Jewish Peril" and read an anti-Semitic text by Louis-Ferdinand Céline. Brasillach supported interning French Jews.
Vichy Regime (03:56)
Learn about intellectuals who took a stand against Hitler's anti-Semitism. Phillipe Pétain's version of French nationalism included bucolic nostalgia, bureaucracy, sports, and a fascination with youth.
French Anti-Fascist Culture (02:36)
Hear from an alumnus of Grenoble's nationalist Uriage program. Levy discusses how the Resistance offered an alternative to Vichy and Hitler.
Resistance Movement (03:04)
Meet French anti-Fascist intellectuals, and learn how Gide and Malraux traveled to Berlin to plead Dimitrov's innocence in the Reichstag Fire in 1934.
Comité de Vigilance (03:27)
Jacques Soustelle describes joining the anti-Fascist group founded by Alain and Langevin. Learn about secret intellectual resistance "sects.”
Spanish Civil War (04:54)
Appalled by Franco's religious Fascism, French intellectuals joined the International Brigade. Hear Hemingway's Republican propaganda and learn how Malraux joined a squadron but didn't fight.
View scenes from Malraux's propaganda film glossing over Spanish Republican aggression towards Franco supporters.
Occupied France (03:30)
French intellectuals responded to World War II through self-exile in Brazil, Marseilles, New York and London.
Defying Nazi Censorship (02:16)
Learn about French intellectuals who returned to occupied Paris, founded resistance groups and published secret works. Jean Bruller, aka Vercors, recalls writing "La Silence de la Mer."
Joining Armed Resistance (01:23)
Learn about French intellectuals who fought against Nazi occupation.
Pro-German Collaborators (03:04)
Levy visits the town of Sigmaringen where Pétain's Vichy supporters took refuge at the end of the war. Céline describes their hierarchy in a 1957 interview.
Collaborators on Trial (03:00)
French intellectuals were divided over justice for supporters of the Vichy Regime. Learn about Brasillach's execution and La Rochelle's suicide.
Credits: Days of Contempt: French Intellectuals in the 20th Century (01:46)
Credits: Days of Contempt: French Intellectuals in the 20th Century
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