Propaganda is a method of political brainwashing. It makes people believe something without realizing they are being influenced.
Symbolic Communication (05:32)
Human language and art have always been about representing a version of real life. Symbolic communication is the most important element of propaganda. Modern humans are consistently provided with images.
Engineered Reality (06:19)
Buzzfeed's media manipulation team coined the term "fake news" in 2014. They found hundreds of sites that published false information that looked like it was from real news sites. Storytelling with a clear hero and villain is a powerful tool to engage people and make them believe something.
George Orwell's novel about a totalitarian society reached the best seller list in recent years. Orwell expert Jean Seaton thinks it is because people want to understand what is currently happening in society.
Religious Propaganda (02:51)
The Catholic Church and Martin Luther used the printing press to spread propaganda. The Reformation was a series of efforts to counter the propaganda of the other faction. The Church used baroque art to gain emotional support.
Che Guevara Image (03:26)
Irish artist Jim Fitzpatrick created the famous print after Guevara's murder so he would not be forgotten. Fitzpatrick made it as simple as possible so it could be easily copied.
Wartime Propaganda (05:13)
Governments had to justify total war using various mediums, including film; many stories were perceived as false. After the war, Britain and U.S. viewed propaganda as negative while Germany and the Soviet Union did not.
Subtle Propaganda (05:48)
Most people believe they are not affected by propaganda. Many westerners pick examples, like North Korea or the Catholic Church, and fail to see the subtle versions they are exposed to.
Street Art (06:24)
Sabo creates Republican-leaning political art to express his ideas; he wants to speak against power. Shepard Fairley uses the tools of propaganda in his work, including the Obama "Hope" poster.
Political Art (04:19)
Artist and activist Ai Weiwei explains how all art was made political in Communist China. He has been exiled from China because the regime views him as dangerous.
Nazi Propaganda (05:50)
Nazi architecture was a form of propaganda; the Nazis understand the emotional power of art. Rituals and iconography make people feel that they are a part of something larger.
Charlie Chaplin viewed his political satire as propaganda. Cartoonist Barry Blitt explains how he uses propaganda elements in his political cartoons.
Charlie Hebdo (03:40)
The French newspaper was the target of a terrorist attack because of its political cartoons. The paper covers current events, and the editor views all religions as totalitarian.
Cold War (02:34)
The constant threat of annihilation by the atomic bomb resulted in the Cold War. Strong ideological differences made all news, art, and scientific achievements contain elements of propaganda.
Artist Tyler Shields explains the stories and lies he tells through photography. He uses art to sell ideas, which he calls propaganda. He took the photo of Kathy Griffin holding Trump's head; the right weaponized the image through social media.
Digital Media (03:46)
ISIS has mastered the use of online videos for propaganda. The U.S. government began targeting their online activity. Anti-Muslim hate groups have also used digital media for propaganda.
Through Breitbart News, Steven Bannon has become a powerful propaganda artist. Xenophobia appears in all types of propaganda in the U.S. and Europe. Hate speech spreads through social media platforms.
Truth and Reality (03:09)
In recent years, political leaders have been able to make numerous false claims without recourse. People are more likely to distrust journalists and not believe facts.
One way to reduce negative propaganda is by taking historical icons and giving them new meaning. A Nazi amphitheater in Nuremberg has been turned into a race track.
Credits: Propaganda: The Art of Selling Lies (01:34)
Credits: Propaganda: The Art of Selling Lies
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