Moorish Spain (02:47)
Muslim tribes brought pomegranates to Granada at the end of the 8th Century. The Moors came from Morocco; the royal family descended from Mohammad. The Moors surrendered Alhambra in 1492.
The Romans (03:11)
Volubilis became part of the Roman Empire after a Berber king married the daughter of Marc Antony and Cleopatra. A volcano erupted and covered the ruins. Berber tribes converted from Christianity after Idris I arrived; Spain welcomed the Muslims as liberators.
The Omayads (02:46)
Prince Abd ar-Rahman I escaped to Cordoba in 725. The Mezquita combined indigenous and Muslim architecture; four rulers constructed aspects of the mosque to show their power. During the Middle Ages, tribes fought with other Muslims as much as the infidels.
The Idrisids (02:23)
Idris II established the city of Fez. Al-Qarawiyyin was a madrasa within the medina, welcoming Berbers, Palestinians, Arabians, Andalusians, and Iraqis.
The Almoravids (05:04)
Yusuf ibn Tashfin established Marrakesh and waged a holy war that lasted 45 years. Alcazabas were constructed in the cities of Moorish Spain; the Torre del Oro watchtower was erected in Seville. Moors returned from Spain and settled in the Kasbah of the Udayas.
The Almorads (03:42)
The dynasty conquered the Almoravids in the 12th century, plundering and destroying its legacy. Abu Yaqub Yusuf al-Mansur defeated Christians at Vera, Alarcos, and Portugal. He erected the Kutubiyya Mosque in Marrakesh and Hassan's Tower in Rabat.
The Merenids (05:39)
After defeating the Almorads, the Merenids made Fez their capital; Bou Inania Madrasa contained cedar lattice screens and mosaics. Jewish and Muslim refugees settled in Al-Andalus. During an uprising, Moroccans dragged Abd al-Haqq through the city streets and cut his throat.
Alhambra Palace (05:18)
The Moors completed the citadel in nearly 500 year; Boabdil surrendered in 1492. The complex contained 13 defense towers, Charles V’s Renaissance palace, Hall of the Ambassadors, pleasure gardens, and the Gate of Judgment; Tomas de Torquemada led the Spanish Inquisition.
Victory Over the Moors (04:52)
Muslims and Jews could convert to Christianity or leave. The Barbary pirates captured ship crews and plundered the islands. "The Four Moors" depicted Ferdinand di Medici towering over four Moorish slaves.
North African Trade (02:09)
The Moorish Empire became wealthy; they controlled the West African gold routes. Traders traveled to Marrakesh on camels, seeking refuge every ten days at an oasis.
The Saadians (03:15)
This Saadi dynasty removed the Portuguese from North African ports and established a Jewish quarter. France and England traded in secret with Morocco. Ahmad al-Mansur commissioned the El Badi Palace.
Moorish Architecture (02:54)
Typical features included horseshoe arches, mosaics, geometric forms, and courtyards. There was no wall paintings or sculptures and outside parts were austere. The Moors hid and distributed wealth.
The Alaouites (07:36)
Moulay Ismail moved the capital from Fez to Meknes. The pious sultan built twelve palaces; many were left unfinished or fell to ruins after his death. King Hassan II built a golf course and encouraged tourism; he was buried in a tomb in Rabat.
Credits: A Short History of the Moors (00:30)
Credits: A Short History of the Moors
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