Introduction: Judaism (01:43)
The earliest synagogue dates back to the 8th Century when the Roman Army sacked the second temple in Jerusalem. Architects conform to a traditional layout while creating individual decor and details. John McCarthy traces the history of Judaism from the time of Solomon.
Fortress of Masada (06:06)
Jerusalem fell to the Roman Empire in the year 70, but the Sicarii held the fort erected by King Herod. Josephus wrote about the rebels killing each other and committing suicide before submitting to slavery. The Sicarii built a synagogue and a mikveh.
Old-New Synagogue (06:02)
Judaism became a marginalized religion; England expelled the Jewis in 1290 A.D. The "Great Shul" in Prague was influenced by Gothic architecture; the women's section was added in 1500. The Torah scrolls were handwritten and kept in the ark.
Toledo Synagogue (04:46)
Built at the end of the T12th century, architects incorporated a Christian name with Islamic architecture for Santa Maria La Blanca Synagogue. Scholars translated scientific and philosophic works from the Middle East. El Transito was dedicated as a private house of worship in 1367.
Bevis Marks Synagogue (05:37)
Oliver Cromwell encouraged the Jewis to return to England; King Charles II allowed them to remain. The synagogue survived the Blitz and IRA bombs. Joseph Avis, a Quaker, was a protégé of Sir Christopher Wren.
Budapest Synagogue (06:19)
By the 19th Century, only Russia refused to give rights to Jewish populations. Ludwig Forster wanted The Dohany Street Synagogue to have Moorish influences; Frigyes Feszi designed the interior. During World War II, those who died in the Jewish Ghetto were buried in the yard of the Synagogue.
Liverpool Synagogue (04:04)
William James and George Ashdown Audsley won a contest to design the Princes Road Synagogue, incorporating Byzantine, Romanesque, Gothic, and Moorish styles. The Jewish population has decreased in Liverpool.
New York Synagogue (07:22)
The Audsley brothers designed the West End Synagogue after completing the Princes Road Synagogue. Henry Fernbach designed the Central Synagogue in a Moorish revival style. The ark survived a fire in 1998.
Agoudas Hakehilos Synagogue (04:45)
Wealthy Polish and Russian immigrants privately financed construction in Paris. Hector Guimard, who traditionally created Art Nouveau buildings, was the designer. The synagogue survived Nazi occupation during World War II.
Beth Sholom (05:51)
Located in Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, Frank Lloyd Wright completed the building before his death. Mortimer J. Cohen educated the architect about Judaism. The glass tower was meant to bathe worshippers in the sanctuary as a metaphor for God's love.
Credits: Judaism (00:37)
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