Vikings in Greenland (03:37)
Erik the Red was the first to land on Greenland; the Viking population grew to 3,000. Historian Dan Snow and archaeologist Jette Arneborg visit Hvalsey. Harsh weather conditions forced the Vikings to abandon settlements.
Vikings Sagas (02:46)
Leif Erikson was blown off course in the sea west of Greenland and landed on an undiscovered coastline. Experts have attempted to match the places he explored to sites in North America. In the 1960s, archaeologists found a Viking settlement at L'Anse Aux Meadows in Newfoundland.
Vikings in Newfoundland (05:32)
Sarah Parcak travels to L'Anse Aux Meadows to see what settlements Vikings built in North America. Archaeologists find eight structures built of turf, their size suggesting a population of 90. The evidence of iron and metal working distinguishes the site as Norse.
Viking Life in Newfoundland (04:54)
The leader of the colony in L'Anse Aux Meadows would have lived in the longhouse, with workers and slaves living in smaller dwellings. The presence of butter nuts reveals that Vikings traveled further south. The sagas tell of a settlement called Hope, but its location is unknown.
Viking Sites in North America (04:13)
L'Anse Aux Meadows remains the only confirmed Viking site in North America; Parcak hopes to change that using satellite imaging. She scans the North American coastline looking for evidence. She focuses on Point Rosee, in southern Newfoundland, after possibly finding a buried longhouse.
Potential North American Viking Site (05:38)
Parcak receives permission to excavate the possible Viking site at Point Rosee. The team has two weeks to find proof of a settlement. On the third day, they find evidence that the ground was unnaturally disturbed in a test trench.
Point Rosee Test Trench (06:49)
Canadian archaeologist Fred Schwartz finds a stone that was cracked by fire. Parcak finds possible byproducts of metal production that indicates the area was used for iron working. They find a layer of ash, which were common for floors of Viking iron furnaces.
Potential Viking Ironworks (03:05)
Viking expert Doug Bolender visits Point Rosee. He believes the site shows signs of Viking iron working. Bolender helps find turf walls around the hearth.
Potential Viking Site Date (05:05)
Though all the signs point to a Viking settlement, Point Rosee's location raises doubt. Samples of seeds sent for carbon dating indicate they are from the colonial period. Parcak does not believe the site is that modern.
Vikings and First Nation People (04:52)
The team must rule out other possibilities for Point Rosee. The Viking sagas tell of explorers meeting and battling native people in the new land west of Greenland. Samples from the site undergo analysis for byproducts of metal working, which was done by Vikings but not First Nation people.
Confirmation of Viking Site (05:06)
Parcak and Snow receive analysis results from the metallurgist. One of the three samples show evidence of metalworking at Point Rosee. The site is most likely a Viking settlement.
Credits: The Vikings Uncovered: Episode 2 (00:34)
Credits: The Vikings Uncovered: Episode 2
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