Greek Divinity (03:57)
Unlike the God of Christianity, Greek gods were not divine rulers and they constantly battled for control. Historian Robin Lane Fox is tracking the movements of the Euboaens, who are responsible for the recording of Greek myths.
Euboeans at Home (05:17)
Fox travels to the site of the settlement of Eretria on Euboea, where numerous cup and pottery fragments have been found in the remains of a large communal building. Fox wants to uncover more about Euboean culture to see how it could have influenced Greek myths. Pieces of early writing were found within the temple of Apollo.
Euboean Wine (02:03)
The soil was especially good for growing grapes on Euboea. They traveled throughout the known world selling and trading wine, which exposed them to other cultures and myths.
Euboean Poetry (05:40)
Euboean poet Hesiod wrote about Zeus fighting the snake monster Typhon in a poem he first performed at an Euboean competition. The myth of Typhon stemmed from a cave near Mount Casius in Turkey, where the Euboeans had a settlement. The monster is similar to a myth from the Hittites, who once ruled the region.
Typhon's Lair (08:04)
In Hittie and Greek mythology, a snake monster steals the storm god's eyes and hides them in a cave on Mount Casius. Fox uncovers a Greek inspiration on the cave that tells its significance. In the fifth century, early Christians built a church at the site.
Typhon's Defeat (05:24)
Poet Opian wrote that Zeus bashed Typhon against the rocks outside his cave and created the nearby ravine. Early Christian built five churches at the ravine, but no surviving evidence shows there were ever Greek temples there. The Euboean myth states Typhon went to die on Sicily and became Mount Etna.
Typhon's Presence (06:56)
Typhon was so large the Euboeans believed he stretched all the way to Ischia, an island near Naples. The volcano rock and hot springs were said to be caused by Typhon's heat from under the surface. Homer referenced the monster being on island in the Iliad.
Euboaens in Italy (10:41)
Cumi was the first Euboean settlement on mainland Italy. The mythical prison the Greek gods locked the giants in is thought to be under a nearby ravine called Flegera. A second Flegera, which was the giant's base camp, was thought to be by the settlement of Mende.
Credits: Greek Myths - True Stories: Episode 2 (00:41)
Credits: Greek Myths - True Stories: Episode 2
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