Massacre in Zafra (06:54)
In the early weeks of the Spanish Civil War, Fascists troops marched into the village of Zafra and faced no resistance. Commander Antonio Castejon Espoinosa drew up a list of residents to be shot. The residents were shot as they walked down the road toward the neighboring village.
Nationalist Violence (05:15)
Fascist troops rebelled on July 18, 1936 and began terrorizing villages in Spain. General Francisco Franco wanted a slow victory, so he had time to establish the society he wanted in Spain. Franco praised Castejon's actions in Zafra, where there is now a monument to him.
Leaders of Zafra (06:22)
Jose Gonzalez was the left-leaning mayor of Zafra during the war. He attempted to obey the Republic's wishes and protect his people. He, like many others in Zafra, was killed during and after the war.
Repression in Zafra (03:55)
Fascists eliminated populations, like the village of Zafra, that they thought would oppose them. Jose Maria Llama is a historian who has recorded the atrocities committed in Zafra. After the war, those who opposed Franco were sent to concentration camps.
Fascist Soldier from Zafra (02:04)
A Zafra villager volunteered for the Fascist army during the Spanish Civil War. He worked at the concentration camp near Zafra. He claims he never killed civilians, but admits mass shooting were common and permitted under Marshall Law.
Killings in Castuera (04:38)
A resident of Castuera recounts how her mother was killed by the Fascists. She was from a right-wing family but married a socialist leader who helped the town resist until the end of the war.
Discovering the Truth (02:49)
The Truth Association helps people discover what happened to their missing family members. The Fascist regime that followed the war forbade citizens from discussing what had happened. Fascist propaganda told Republican troops they could surrender without being killed, which was untrue.
Plans for the Rebellion (06:37)
General Emilio Mola is credited as the mastermind behind the initial rebellion, which he thought would last 72 hours. The violence and killings happened to reverse the results of the 1936 elections. A Spanish writer recounts his time being forced to fight for the Fascists by his father.
Massacre in Badajoz (04:00)
Fascist troops entered Badajoz in August 1936 and treated it similar to Zafra. Foreign media was in the village and reported the violence. It created an international scandal and Fascist officials attempted to censor the media.
Revolutionary Violence (05:23)
The Republicans also shot prisoners and civilians without trial, which Fascist propaganda liked to highlight. In many places, lower class citizens began committing violence against the higher classes. Once in power, the Fascists collected records of violence committed by the Republicans.
Franco in Power (04:38)
The Catholic Church in Spain supported Franco and the Fascists, fearing it was losing power under the Republic. The Fascists used propaganda to show the progress under the new regime. Thousands of sham trials resulted in death sentences.
Credits: The Spanish Holocaust - Part One (01:48)
Credits: The Spanish Holocaust - Part One
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