Growing Up in Poverty (02:37)
Nightmares, flashbacks, paranoia, sadness, depression, and mood swings occur with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Young people living in urban areas throughout the nation can experience similar symptoms.
Oakland, California (05:38)
In two years, the number of shootings have almost doubled. Caheri Gutierrez describes hearing gunshots for the first time at Youth Spirit Artworks in Berkeley; Gutierrez survived five surgeries to fix her jaw after being shot. Exposure to trauma can trigger dramatic changes to mood and behavior.
Adversity-Related Stress (02:29)
After his mother died from cancer, Antonio Carter's father could not care for his children. Carter does not allow his two-year-old son to play in the front yard out of fear stray bullets.
Continuous Traumatic Stress (03:10)
Gill Straker coined the term while examining the effect of Apartheid on victims. Police may be perceived as enemies. Trauma can occur throughout the course of one's life.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (03:33)
The class divide creates some of the most economically distressed communities in the country. Race-based politics undermine many non-white neighborhoods. Christine Henry describes protecting her son after hearing gunshots.
Exposure to Street Violence (02:58)
Dr. Daniel Taylor explains how 10% of 7-year-old children in North Philadelphia have seen a dead body. There is no "post" in these families. Eleventh Street Family Health Services provides medical care and education.
Managing Stress (02:23)
Exposure to repetitive stress in early childhood creates changes in brain architecture. Language functions, the ability to think clearly, focus, and thought organization can be impaired. Children suffering from PTSD feel the world is always threatening.
Behavior Issues in Children (04:02)
In 2012, 2,000 children were expelled from pre-K and kindergarten in Connecticut. Vincent Felitti and Robert Anda publish research linking adult health to childhood adversity. Philadelphia enlarges the survey to include racism, neighborhood safety, and violence.
Trauma-Informed Care (05:25)
Javier Arango was shot and paralyzed as a member of the 9400 Boys. The Catholic Charities of East Bay provides counseling, housing for at-risk youth, and education. Kenny Ray Johnson was shot when he was fourteen.
Creating Safe Zones (02:25)
Harold Reed and the staff of the Boys and Girls Club at Wilson Park provide counseling and tutoring for children.
Trauma Recovery (04:22)
PTSD is a lifelong battle. Henry moves to a different neighborhood and has a new job. Violence is a symptom of the problem.
Credits: Wounded Places: Confronting Childhood PTSD in America's Shell-Shocked Cities (02:05)
Credits: Wounded Places: Confronting Childhood PTSD in America's Shell-Shocked Cities
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