Indigenous Peoples' Day (02:51)
Activists protest against celebrating Christopher Columbus in Albuquerque. Experts debate the merits of educating children about the explorer. (Credits)
Genocide and Colonization (04:35)
Bill Bigelow explains how Columbus invaded America. Jonathan Zimmerman cautions against believing historical figures are gods. Every second Monday in October creates controversy because of the celebration.
Discovering America (03:16)
After an 800 year war, Spain's natural resources and income was depleted. Columbus built a fort first on Hispaniola.
Taino People (03:47)
Dominican Republic and other Caribbean Islands worshipped a female deity. When differences arose the Taino people would play a game to settle the matter. Columbus documented how he monetized the culture and utilized the Doctrine of Discovery to claim the lands for Spain.
Returning to Haiti (03:20)
Columbus returns to Hispaniola with 17 ships, over a thousand soldiers, and attack dogs. Mass genocide occurred.
Ruling Hispaniola (04:20)
Rapes, murders, and forced prostitution occurred. The Spaniards enslaved the Taino people and relocated them to Europe. Basil Davidson called Columbus "the father of the slave trade"; the explorer required the Indigenous population to give tribute every few months in gold.
Columbus in the United States (06:42)
Early revolutionaries latched onto Columbus to distance themselves from Great Britain. The government played "Hail Columbia" during George Washington's inauguration. During the 19th century, Italian Immigrants celebrated Columbus to prove they were American.
Expanding Westward (04:24)
Euro-Americans believed themselves superior to the Indigenous population. President Andrew Jackson implemented punitive damages to Native American tribes. Washington Irving wrote a fictional biography of the world leader.
Reminders of Columbus (02:17)
In Washington, DC, the explorer adorns paintings, doors, and sculptures created during the 19th century.
Industrial Revolution (04:46)
The government seized land to create railroads and fuel the gold rush. Columbus Day arose from the government being called in to stop Labor strikes and movements. Michael J. McGivney founded the Knights of Columbus to prove that Catholics were just as American as Protestants.
The Columbian Exposition (03:53)
The Chicago World's Fair celebrated the 401st anniversary of Columbus arriving in the New World. Simon Pokagon speaks and says that the explorer devastated Native American Tribes.
Columbus Day (04:14)
Denver celebrated the first Columbus Day in 1907. Generoso Pope became friendly with Franklin Delano Roosevelt who made it a national holiday. Charles Beard wrote "An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution," which argues that the document was motivated by personal financial interests.
After World War II (05:22)
During McCarthyism, educators reduced Columbus into an uncontroversial character. Experts discuss how the American Mythology has been sanitized over generations. Read quotations past presidents have said about discovery.
Columbian Exchange (03:23)
In 1992, terms changed away from discovery, but still hid the brutality. Educators discuss when to inform children about the violence in our country's past.
Believing the American Mythology (08:39)
School book publishers do not want to create controversy within their texts. Educators discuss how students feel betrayed when they learn the truth in college.
Symbol of Discovery (04:12)
Angelo Vivolo describes why he supports Columbus Day. Activists celebrate the First Inaugural Indigenous Peoples' Day in Albuquerque. Duane 'Chili' Yazzie asks the Catholic Church to rescind the Doctrine of Discovery.
Abolishing Columbus Day (04:25)
The Mayor of Seattle passed the Indigenous Peoples' Day Resolution. Other celebrations occur at Brown University, Portland, and Denver.
Owning History (04:33)
Vivolo explains how both Columbus Day and Indigenous Peoples' Day should be celebrated. Columbus cannot be measured by current standards of behavior. Experts describe how Vivolo's argument is flawed because people of the time period did confront the explorer.
Erasing Italian-American Pride (04:14)
Viola explains that Columbus Day celebrates all Italian Americans. Educators perpetuate a history that makes us feel good instead of the complete truth. Celebrating the holiday is akin to honoring Adolf Hitler.
Controversial Issues (03:29)
Roberto Borrero compares to flying the Confederate Flag to Columbus Day. People need to reduce symbols of hatred and violence. Not everyone has the same opportunities in America.
Credits: Columbus in America (01:57)
Credits: Columbus in America
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