Wounds of War (04:47)
Tim O'Brien reads "The Things They Carried." Former POWs, including Everett Alvarez, attended a reception at the White House. Hal Kushner reunited with his family in Valley Forge, PA.
Civil War and Rectitude (03:00)
The last American troops left South Vietnam on March 29, 1973; North and South Vietnam continued to fight. In the U.S., controversy over the war continued.
Watergate Scandal (02:27)
The Nixon administration unraveled during 1973. Jack Todd was bitter and out of touch with the United States, and renounced his citizenship.
War of the Flags (05:11)
North and South Vietnam disregarded the cease-fire and pushed to gain control of the country. In June 1973, Congress voted to stop all military operations in or over Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.
Deteriorating Conditions in South Vietnam (04:45)
President Nixon resigned in 1974. Congress reduced military funding and economic assistance. Demonstrators demanded President Thieu's resignation and the A.R.V.N. began disintegrating.
North Vietnamese Control (07:48)
The Politburo and Central Military Committee met to discuss strategy. America did not respond to a test attack and the North Vietnamese began an assault on the Central Highlands. President Thieu's orders to withdraw from the highlands proved disastrous.
North Vietnamese Progress (05:15)
Le Minh Khue was assigned a house owned by a family who died trying to flee Da Nang. North Vietnamese troops advanced toward Saigon, but Ambassador Graham Martin would not allow evacuations.
Closing in on Saigon (06:01)
President Ford appealed to Congress for emergency aid to Saigon but was denied; four evacuation plans were created. Xuan Loc fell, President Thieu resigned, and thousands rushed to flee Vietnam.
Lost Loved Ones (01:54)
Nguyen Thanh Tung's eight brothers and two sons were killed in wars. Jean-Marie Crocker sends a wreath to her son's grave at Arlington National Cemetery.
Fall of Saigon (11:18)
The North Vietnamese began the main assault in April 1975. Ambassador Martin's denial of a direct attack made city-wide evacuations difficult. Marines burned classified material at the embassy.
Final Embassy Evacuations (05:04)
Ambassador Martin was ordered to leave Saigon; only Americans would now be evacuated. Marines made their way to the embassy roof and bordered helicopters. Kissinger gave a press conference.
Communist Control of Saigon (09:04)
President Duong Van Minh ordered the South Vietnamese to surrender. The North Vietnamese Army entered the presidential palace. Musgrave saw the way America left Vietnam as an act of abandonment.
Unified Vietnam? (08:10)
Approximately 1.5 million people underwent indoctrination. Washington D.C. refused to recognize the new government and Le Duan's plans resulted in economic disaster. Vietnam was forced into invading Cambodia. Approximately 1.5 million refugees fled Vietnam
Americans Remember Vietnam (06:31)
Karl Marlantes suffers from PTSD. Vincent Okamoto did not discuss the war. In April 1981, experts chose Maya Lin's design for a Vietnam memorial; the design received mixed reviews.
Vietnam Memorial (06:34)
Many people visited the memorial on November 13, 1982. Former military members, antiwar activists, and family members of those who died reflect on the wall.
Reconnecting with Vietnam (09:19)
Many veterans returned to Vietnam. Farmer-soldiers changed Vietnam; citizens were the architects of normalization. Le Duan's successors adopted "doi moi." The U.S. lifted the trade embargo in 1994.
Life After War (07:18)
The land in Vietnam has largely recovered and animosities are mostly buried, but ghosts remain. Some Vietnamese question the war. The war has lingering effects for many Americans; meaning is found in individual stories.
Credits: The Weight of Memory (March 1973-Onward) (03:13)
Credits: The Weight of Memory (March 1973-Onward)
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