Antiwar Demonstrations (02:30)
Large groups of protesters take to the streets. Karl Marlantes recalls the reception he received after returning home from war.
Antiwar Sentiment (03:51)
Most Americans blamed students for what happened at the Kent State demonstration. Nixon withdrew troops while trying to find a way to end the war; he believed Communists were behind the antiwar movement. Vietnam polarized American society.
Fear Mongering? (02:59)
Eva Jefferson testified about student unrest during a presidential commission. Vice President Agnew debated students, including Jefferson, on the "David Frost Show."
Fratricide and Vietnamization (08:16)
Bao Ninh considers Vietnamese killing each other the tragedy of war. The A.R.V.N. tried to stop the North Vietnamese from using the Ho Chi Minh trail in Laos without U.S. ground support; they targeted Tchepone. Nixon declared Vietnamization a success.
Soldier Morale and Drug Use (03:57)
James Gillam reflects on the desire just to survive the war. Marijuana and heroin were readily available to soldiers; soldiers smoke from the muzzle of guns.
My Lai Massacre Verdict (03:44)
Lt. William Calley was found guilty of murdering civilians and sentenced to life in prison; Gen. Samuel Coster was forced to resign from West Point. President Nixon ordered Calley to house arrest pending appeal.
Prisoners of War (03:45)
Hal Kushner's captors forced POWs to walk 540 miles up the Ho Chi Minh Trail; they went to prisons in Hanoi. Most POWs were forced to record a statement against the war.
Vietnam Veterans Against the War (12:16)
John Musgrave reflects on the impact of war veterans. The V.V.A.W. marched on Washington, DC and threw their medals at the building. Lt. John Kerry addressed the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Antiwar activists descended on the capitol days after the veteran protest.
U.S. Relations with Vietnam (10:17)
Neil Sheehan published the first of the Pentagon Papers in June 1971. President Nixon wanted Daniel Ellsberg discredited and files stolen from the Brookings Institute; he created "The Plumbers."
Army Deserter (02:09)
Jack Todd entered Canada in 1970 to avoid the war; he found an underground culture. He learned about the death of a good friend from a newspaper clipping.
Chemical Defoliants and Politics (02:54)
U.S. troops sprayed 20 million gallons of herbicides over approximately 25% of South Vietnam. Vietnamese students protested against the war and American involvement; President Nguyen Van Thieu ran for re-election.
Government Relations (03:17)
By mid-1971, President Nixon and Henry Kissinger wanted to get all U.S. troops out of Vietnam without Saigon collapsing. Kissinger and Le Duc Tho held secret talks in Paris. Nixon announced he would visit China.
Demoralizing POWs (04:05)
In the fall of 1971, Kushner's captors forced POWs to watch images of the antiwar movement in America. Kushner's wife became politically active.
Easter Offensive (07:38)
President Nixon's visit to China worried both governments in Vietnam; he planned to visit Moscow. Le Duan orchestrated an offensive to strengthen his position at peace talks. Nixon responded with Operation Linebacker.
Bombing Campaign (06:27)
President Nixon renewed the bombing of North Vietnam. Phan Quang Tue's brother died in the Easter Offensive. Nixon ordered mines to block access to Haiphong Harbor. The U.S. and Soviet Union signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty in May 1972.
Outside Trang Bang (03:53)
In June 1972, Nick Ut photographed a South Vietnamese pilot dropping napalm on refugees he mistook for the enemy; his image of Kim Phuc won a Pulitzer Prize. Ut drove several injured children to a Saigon hospital.
George McGovern and Political Scandal (03:52)
Valerie Kushner spoke at the 1972 Democratic National Convention; McGovern's campaign collapsed. "The Plumbers" broke into the DNC headquarters and were caught.
Jane Fonda (02:47)
Fonda was a fantasy for many soldiers and they were angry and felt betrayed when she went to North Vietnam. Fonda denounced American POWs on Radio Hanoi.
Tentative Peace Agreement (04:31)
President Nixon addressed the war at the Republican 1972 National Convention; he and Kissinger discussed the collapse of the Saigon government. Kissinger and Le Duc Tho came to an agreement without informing President Thieu of the terms.
Peace Talks and Peace Agreement (06:26)
President Nixon was reelected and authorized an air lift to South Vietnam. He ordered the peace talks suspended when dissension occurred and resumed bombing North Vietnam. Hanoi returned to negotiations and an agreement was reached in six days.
End of War (06:41)
Lyndon B. Johnson died January 22, 1973; Nixon announced the agreement to end the war in Vietnam the next day. POWs, including Everett Alvarez and Hal Kushner, returned home; combat troops soon followed.
Credits: A Disrespectful Loyalty (May 1970-March 1973) (03:01)
Credits: A Disrespectful Loyalty (May 1970-March 1973)
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