Freudian Theory and Iceberg Metaphor (02:50)
Freudian theory, based on unconscious mental processes, influences the collective understanding of human behavior and motivation. Unconscious mental processes cannot be brought to the forefront of consciousness; rather, they can be deduced from surface indicators. Freud sought to understand neurotic behavior by examining the mental state of individuals.
The Mind: An Energy System (04:47)
Eros, the libido, and Thanatos, the death instinct, are motivating forces in adult life. Freud proposed a developmental theory of human personality in which childhood sexual experiences determine the adult personality. Children progress through psychosexual stages- oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.
Oedipus Complex: Freud (02:10)
For psychologically healthy adults this is resolved and the jealousy of the parent of the same sex becomes an identification with that parent. There is a latency period before puberty. The genital stage is a period of sexual maturity during puberty.
Normal Development (03:31)
The developmental process is a movement through a series of conflicts- the successful resolution of which is crucial to adult mental health. Freud argued that many mental illnesses can be traced back to unresolved conflicts during developmental stages. Homosexuality was seen as a failure to resolve the Oedipus complex.
Structured Energy System (02:27)
Freud conceived of the structure of the mind as having the following components: the ID, the instinctual sexual drives, the super-ego, our conscious, and the ego, a self-created conscious produced by dynamic tensions between the super-ego and the ID.
Defense Mechanisms (01:33)
Defense mechanisms prevent conflicts in the developmental stages and control the natural impulses of the ID and include fixation, regression, repression, and sublimation.
Critiques of Freudian Theory (02:00)
Freud's work is vulnerable to feminist criticism especially his theory of penis envy. Explore Freud's treatment of Dora- a woman thought to have hysteria rooted in the Oedipus complex.
Jacques Lacan and Freudian Theory (02:44)
Jacques Lacan was a Freudian theorist who combines psychoanalytic theory and semiotics and provides a less literal interpretation of the Oedipus complex. This interpretation explains the development of girls and boys in a nonsexist way. Lacan added the mirror stage to psychosexual stages.
Oedipus Complex: Lacan (02:38)
This complex is decisive in the development of the individual and etiology of subsequent mental illness. What the child believes the mother desires is the driving force of this complex. Explore the differences between Freud and Lacan's view of the castration complex.
Structure of the Unconscious (01:41)
The unconscious names bodily manifestations and identifications with others and external objects beyond. Symptoms of mental illness are unconscious desires to manifest itself. Later interpretation makes sense of past behaviors.
The Master Signifier (03:22)
Master signifiers are signifiers the subject most deeply identifies with and have a key role in the way they give meaning to the world. Explore the relationship between signifier and signified. The fundamental fantasy is the basic phantasmic structuration of identity as constituted by the laws endured at castration.
Credits: The Unconscious: Freud and Lacan (00:22)
Credits: The Unconscious: Freud and Lacan
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