Social Alienation (04:30)
In today's world, citizens feel alienated from society, friends, employees, and themselves. In the 1844 Manuscript, Karl Marx developed his theory of species being. Species being and alienation are mutually dependent.
Marx and Religion (05:54)
Marx believed that religion as a tool to pacify the masses and expanded upon Ludwig Feuerbach's criticism of religion. Marx used political economy to explain alienation.
Species Being (02:07)
Biological theories overlook the human condition and cannot explain human behavior alone. Species being is a philosophical and sociological theory that explains the human condition. Marx argued that consciousness does not determine existence; rather, social being determines consciousness.
Social Being Determines Consciousness (03:26)
The human condition requires interactions with nature to provide basic needs. Human history documents how society interacts with nature; however, engagement with nature is always social. Work is a universal and essential feature of the human condition.
Forms of Alienation (02:21)
Alienation from product, process, and others—together, these three forms function to alienate us from our species being.
Product Alienation (04:57)
In capitalistic societies, the laborer sells their capacity to the employer. Assembly line production and labor removes joy from creative work and stifles satisfaction.
Employer-Employee Relationship (02:22)
The essence of this relationship is the exploitation of the employee. Antagonism is built into the relationship between employees and employers due to fundamentally different objectives. Strategies in the workplace pit employees against one another and increase individual alienation.
Alienated Labor (02:29)
Alienation from species being is a combination of alienation affecting citizens simultaneously. Different forms of social organization affect the degree of alienation.
Credits: Marx's Theory of Alienation and Species Being (00:20)
Credits: Marx's Theory of Alienation and Species Being
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