Introduction—Everything and Nothing: Everything (02:44)
Physicist Jim Al-Khalili explains the size and scale of the universe using sand. Humankind's understanding of the universe is its greatest achievement.
What is the Totality of Everything? (06:42)
Modern humans have always questioned the size of the universe. Scientific advancements allow humans to get closer to the answer. Hear theories throughout history.
Why is it Dark at Night? (08:00)
In the 1500s, scientists could not explain why the night sky was dark if there is an infinite number of stars. Olbers Paradox was not solved until the 1900s. William and Caroline Herschel made numerous powerful telescopes and cataloged the stars.
Measuring Space (05:45)
Astronomer Friedrich Bessel determined how to measure the distance to objects in space—stellar parallax. Only a portion of the universe could be measured using the method. The issue was resolved by Henrietta Leavitt in the 1920s.
Edwin Hubble (05:07)
With the technological advancements of the Hooker telescope and Leavitt's equations, Hubble settled the debate about the universe having multiple galaxies. He found the distance of stars in the Andromeda nebula and determined they were too far to be in the Milky Way.
Space Science (10:02)
After Hubble's discovery, no one knew how large the universe was. It was too large to study with only observation and mathematical equations became important to measuring space.
Applications of Geometry (06:44)
Numerous mathematicians studied Euclidean geometry but no one, until Albert Einstein, could apply it to the real world. Einstein explained the geometry of space through the theory of relativity.
Changing Universe (06:46)
Einstein refused to believe that the universe was moving and changing. Hubble had been studying galaxies and observing them change over time. Their theories aligned to show the universe was expanding.
Night Sky (06:31)
The further away a star is, the longer the light takes to reach Earth. Starlight must travel a greater distance as the universe expands, which is why the night sky is not filled with starlight.
Credits: Everything and Nothing: Everything (00:07)
Credits: Everything and Nothing: Everything
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