Segments in this Video

Siege of Jerusalem (03:57)

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Christian knights arrived in Jerusalem in 1099. The Pope had promised remission of their sins to restore Christian rule in the Holy Land. News of the siege reached Al-Sulami in Damascus. Muslims used Greek fire to defend the city.

Call to Crusades (03:52)

Muslims would lose face before Allah, if Jerusalem was captured. Emperor Alexios of Constantinople appealed for help against the Seljuq Turks. At a 1095 sermon in Clermont, Pope Urban II urged Christians to support their Eastern brethren and recapture the Holy Land.

Answering the Papal Call to Arms (05:22)

At the Clermont synod, Pope Urban II called on Christians to unite against Muslims—aiming to consolidate his power. Preachers spread his appeal for a crusade to Jerusalem. Fearing damnation, peasants, craftsmen, and nobility sought salvation.

Pogroms of 1096 (02:26)

The People's Crusade passed through Rhine trading cities like Speyer, attacking and looting Jewish communities. Many poor crusaders were ill-prepared for a long journey; few reached Jerusalem.

Godfrey of Bouillon (02:48)

Impressed by the belief in impending Judgment Day, Godfrey and his brothers Baldwin and Eustace answered the pope's call. They sold their castle and planned to found a kingdom in the Holy Land.

Journey to Jerusalem (03:53)

In summer of 1066, Europeans from all social strata traveled to the Holy Land via Constantinople. Alexios demanded crusader allegiance; they had already sworn allegiance to the pope but relented to gain passage across the Bosphorus. Later, they would not return conquered Byzantine land.

Battle of Dorylaeum (03:04)

Learn about the crusader victory against Seljuq Turks on the way to Jerusalem. In Damascus, Al-Sulami warned Muslims that the Christians were waging a holy war, rather than a normal looting campaign.

Preparing for Holy War (03:25)

Less than one third of the original crusader army reached Jerusalem. Short on supplies, they held purification ceremonies before attacking. Egyptian Fatimids defending the city realized they were fighting a divine mission.

Fall of Jerusalem (04:00)

On July 15, 1099, the crusaders attempted to scale the city walls with siege towers. Defenders used Greek fire; Godfrey's men finally gained access. Crusaders massacred Jewish and Muslim civilians while leaders secured important sites.

Muslim Reaction (04:51)

The crusaders massacred 30,000 Jews, Muslims and Christians in Jerusalem; Pope Urban II had called for revenge against non-believers for desecrating Christian sites. Al-Salumi saw the loss as a test for Muslims and called for unity to take back Jerusalem.

Jihad and Cease-Fire (02:53)

In the 12th century, Saladin of Egypt re-took Jerusalem. Professor Nikolas Jaspert compares his campaign to the crusade. Subsequent Christian attempts to reconquer Jerusalem failed; Frederick II negotiated a ten year truce with Sultan Al-Kamil in 1228.

Outcome of the Crusades (03:24)

Frederick II's truce resulted in a cultural exchange between Christians and Muslims. Christian knights remained in the Holy Land for 200 years. Historical memories of the crusades were revived during 19th century European colonialism.

Credits: Crusade to Jerusalem (00:29)

Credits: Crusade to Jerusalem

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Part of the Series : Holy War
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Description

Four hundred years after the Muslim expansion, the Christians of Europe struck back. "It is the Will of God" was the slogan of the Crusaders who assembled in Western Europe. At the end of the first expedition - personally sacralized by the Pope - the blood-drenched conquest of Jerusalem took place in the year 1099. In recollection of the "jihad", Muslim leaders pooled their resources to win back the lost territories. The events that occurred had a long-term influence on religious affairs. Hundreds of thousands of Crusaders died, but also a large number of Islamic warriors, as well as civilians - Christians, Jews and Muslims.

Length: 46 minutes

Item#: BVL144732

Copyright date: ©2011

Closed Captioned

Performance Rights

Prices include public performance rights.

Not available to Home Video and Publisher customers.

Only available in USA and Canada.


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