Siege of Jerusalem (03:57)
Christian knights arrived in Jerusalem in 1099. The Pope had promised remission of their sins to restore Christian rule in the Holy Land. News of the siege reached Al-Sulami in Damascus. Muslims used Greek fire to defend the city.
Call to Crusades (03:52)
Muslims would lose face before Allah, if Jerusalem was captured. Emperor Alexios of Constantinople appealed for help against the Seljuq Turks. At a 1095 sermon in Clermont, Pope Urban II urged Christians to support their Eastern brethren and recapture the Holy Land.
Answering the Papal Call to Arms (05:22)
At the Clermont synod, Pope Urban II called on Christians to unite against Muslims—aiming to consolidate his power. Preachers spread his appeal for a crusade to Jerusalem. Fearing damnation, peasants, craftsmen, and nobility sought salvation.
Pogroms of 1096 (02:26)
The People's Crusade passed through Rhine trading cities like Speyer, attacking and looting Jewish communities. Many poor crusaders were ill-prepared for a long journey; few reached Jerusalem.
Godfrey of Bouillon (02:48)
Impressed by the belief in impending Judgment Day, Godfrey and his brothers Baldwin and Eustace answered the pope's call. They sold their castle and planned to found a kingdom in the Holy Land.
Journey to Jerusalem (03:53)
In summer of 1066, Europeans from all social strata traveled to the Holy Land via Constantinople. Alexios demanded crusader allegiance; they had already sworn allegiance to the pope but relented to gain passage across the Bosphorus. Later, they would not return conquered Byzantine land.
Battle of Dorylaeum (03:04)
Learn about the crusader victory against Seljuq Turks on the way to Jerusalem. In Damascus, Al-Sulami warned Muslims that the Christians were waging a holy war, rather than a normal looting campaign.
Preparing for Holy War (03:25)
Less than one third of the original crusader army reached Jerusalem. Short on supplies, they held purification ceremonies before attacking. Egyptian Fatimids defending the city realized they were fighting a divine mission.
Fall of Jerusalem (04:00)
On July 15, 1099, the crusaders attempted to scale the city walls with siege towers. Defenders used Greek fire; Godfrey's men finally gained access. Crusaders massacred Jewish and Muslim civilians while leaders secured important sites.
Muslim Reaction (04:51)
The crusaders massacred 30,000 Jews, Muslims and Christians in Jerusalem; Pope Urban II had called for revenge against non-believers for desecrating Christian sites. Al-Salumi saw the loss as a test for Muslims and called for unity to take back Jerusalem.
Jihad and Cease-Fire (02:53)
In the 12th century, Saladin of Egypt re-took Jerusalem. Professor Nikolas Jaspert compares his campaign to the crusade. Subsequent Christian attempts to reconquer Jerusalem failed; Frederick II negotiated a ten year truce with Sultan Al-Kamil in 1228.
Outcome of the Crusades (03:24)
Frederick II's truce resulted in a cultural exchange between Christians and Muslims. Christian knights remained in the Holy Land for 200 years. Historical memories of the crusades were revived during 19th century European colonialism.
Credits: Crusade to Jerusalem (00:29)
Credits: Crusade to Jerusalem
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