After the French Revolution (04:04)
Napoleon Bonaparte forced King Ferdinand VII to abdicate, and installed his brother Joseph as King. The people rebelled causing the Spanish War of Independence in 1808. When Ferdinand returned to power, Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes painted "The Second of May 1808."
Goya's Beginnings (03:33)
The Catholic Church commissioned frescoes in the Church of San Antonio de la Florida. Goya befriended Francisco Bayeu, married Bayeau's sister Josefa, and created tapestry cartoons for the Royal Tapestry Factory. Learn how Goya portrayed Spanish characters and daily life in his paintings.
Goya's Artwork (03:15)
Goya's deafness influenced a series of etchings called "Los caprichios." In "The Second of May 1808," the bull is a metaphor to demonstrate the power of the people over the ruling class. Individuals smuggled texts into Spain using traders and created private libraries.
Spanish War of Independence (03:35)
Simone Bolivar led colonies to rebel against the French. The Spanish people began resisting Joseph Bonaparte's rule by creating caricatures of "Jojo of the Bottle." The French army shot and killed over 400 Spaniards in the Puerto del Sol as punishment for the uprisings. Goya painted the incident as a companion piece to "The Second of May."
Impact of "The Second of May 1801" (03:25)
The composition follows a parabola instead of straight lines. Goya favored tomanticism instead of tococo and neoclassic movements. He captured the Mamluk squadron rushing into the square to subdue the peasants.
Painting Fantasy Creatures (03:24)
In the "Black Paintings," monsters invade the work of Goya. In "The Disasters of War," the painter captures the brutality of guerrilla warfare. Ludwig Von Beethoven dedicated "Eroica" to the Emperor, but later regretted it.
Legacy of Goya and the War (03:37)
Goya added words to add meaning to images. French soldiers raped Spanish women, who retaliated by slitting their throats. Goya depicted the violence and brutality of war.
Credits: Goya: Smart Secrets of Great Paintings (00:37)
Credits: Goya: Smart Secrets of Great Paintings
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