Vienna: World City (02:21)
Klemens von Metternich was the leader at the European summit, and ruled for thirty years from the Austrian Chancellery. The great Czar Alexander I of Russia was determined to take control of Vienna, but the Hapsburgs and Metternich blocked his power.
Women in Viennese Politics (02:12)
Metternich and the Czar’s mistresses (Princess Katya Bagration) and Wilhelmine de Sagan, lived on the same landing, causing tension to rise between the leaders. Metternich was furious with the Czar and challenged him to a duel after he had an affair with Metternich’s lover Wilhelmina.
Hapsburg Control in Vienna (04:39)
After the signing of the Congress of Vienna Treaty, Metternich exterminated all the revolutionaries in Europe; the secret police provided stability in Vienna. Ferdinand rose to power after the death of Emperor Francis; revolution broke out in Paris and Vienna, forcing Metternich out of power and the Hapsburgs to flee the country.
Divided by Marriage (03:18)
Archduchess Sophie spent her life preparing her son Franz Joseph to rise to power after the death of his uncle, Emperor Ferdinand. Joseph saw himself as a supreme warlord; he reconquered each of the Hapsburg provinces. Joseph’s army lost several important battles, and German unification followed, stamping out the Hapsburg influence in Germany.
Franz Joseph's Love Life (04:09)
Joseph married the Bavarian princess Elizabeth, known as Princess Sisi, for love, but the couple was not well suited. Sophie despised Sisi and forbade her from raising her daughter Gisela or Crown Prince Rudolf. Olivia Lichtsheidl explains Sisi was self-obsessed and had one of the first in-home gyms.
A Duel Empire (02:05)
Sisi and Count Andrassy, a former Hungarian revolutionary, convinced Joseph to create the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. After abandoning her husband and children, Sisi returned to help Joseph by introducing him to actress Katharina Schratt.
Imperial Tragedy (03:22)
Crown Prince Rudolf grew to be a reckless young man; his sexual promiscuity led to a deadly contraction of syphilis. In 1888, he and the Baroness Marie Vetsera created a suicide pact which they completed in a Mayerling hunting lodge; princess Sisi was stabbed to death soon after her son died.
Changing Art and Analysis (03:28)
Vienna was known for its constant influx of immigrants, particularly of Czechs and Jews. This created a rich, cultured environment for artists like Gustav Klimt and Egon Schiele. Sigmund Freud began studying the unconscious mind, focusing on anxiety; he coined the term psychoanalysis.
Young Dictators in Vienna (05:31)
Mayor Karl Lueger created a spirit of ultra Germanism, antisemitism, and hyper nationalism in Vienna which inspired future dictators Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin. Hitler went to Vienna to be a painter; Stalin was sent there by Lenin to study and help design the structure of the multinational soviet union.
WWI Begins (04:31)
Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie Chotek were assassinated by ultranationalist who had infiltrated the Serbian government. The Black Hand killed Ferdinand and Chotek in Sarajevo, sparking the Great War.
Austrian Republic (04:13)
In Vienna, liberal socialists and nationalists rebelled, pushing the Hapsburgs into exile. After the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, Vienna became the capital of the Republic of Austria. Austrian Chancellor Dr. Kurt von Schuschnigg was intimidated by the new German leader Adolf Hitler.
Vienna in WWII (03:15)
Hitler marched into Vienna, forcing the Jewish aristocrats, including the Rothschilds, to flee. Adolf Eichmann, Hitler’s SS Jewish expert, was sent to Vienna before his attempt to annihilate Jewish Europeans from his station in Berlin.
Freedom in Austria (03:33)
The Nazis were being pushed back on the western and eastern fronts, and Stalin’s Soviet Army liberated Vienna. The French, Americans, and British placed the city under four power control. The Austrian State Treaty was signed in 1955 at the Belvedere Palace, making Austria an independent nation.
Credits: Vienna (00:33)
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