Learn about high blood pressure effects, risks, and role in renal failure. The renin- angiotensin-aldosterone system regulates arterial tone and circulating blood volume when the kidney releases renin.
ACE Inhibitors and Beta-Blockers (04:18)
Captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, and ramipril block angiotensin I to angiotensin II conversion to reduce blood pressure. ARB drugs have a similar mechanism with fewer side effects. Propranolol, atenolol, metoprolol, and carvedilol slow heart rate and decrease contractility. Hear side effects and patient teaching instructions.
Calcium Channel Blockers and Central Adrenergic Inhibitors (03:09)
Vasodilators diltiazem, nifedipine, and verapamil reduce blood pressure by relaxing and enlarging smooth muscle and artery walls; they are used for angina, tachycardia, and hypertension. Hear toxicity signs. Clonidine (Methyldopa) inhibits vasoconstriction by inhibiting adrenaline nerve ending release. Hear tips for patient teaching.
Atrial fibrillation decreases heart pumping efficiency and increases atrium clot formation. Warfarin, heparin, enoxaparin, dalteparin, rivaroxaban, apixaban and dabigatran slow the coagulation process. Patients should learn how to count their pulse and recognize symptoms.
Warfarin and Heparin (04:45)
Warfarin alters vitamin K dependent clotting factor synthesis. Many vitamin K foods and drugs interact with warfarin. Heparin interferes with prothrombin to thrombin conversion and fibrinogen to fibrin conversion. Learn about labs to monitor and view contraindications listed for both anticoagulants.
Antiplatelet Agents (01:24)
Aspirin, abciximab, tirofiban, eptifibatide or clopidogrel reduce blood clotting by preventing platelet aggregation. Increased aggregation is associated with atherosclerosis and thromboembolic disorders.
Credits: Antihypertensives and Anticoagulants (00:11)
Credits: Antihypertensives and Anticoagulants
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