Prelude: Brazilian Avant-Garde Literature (00:53)
In the first decades of the 20th century, Brazilian artists of the avant-garde movement capture and reflect the changes brought about by social and cultural upheavals in the Western world.
Modernism in Brazilian Literature: Mario de Andrade (03:01)
Modernismo is a cultural movement that first appeared in Brazil at the beginning of the 20th century. Seminal events of 1922 defined "Modernismo," and produced its first novel: "Hallucinated City" by Mario de Andrade.
Oswald de Andrade: "Anthropophagy" (03:16)
The term "anthropophagy" was initially recovered and reinterpreted by the poet Oswald de Andrade in a famous manifesto published in 1928. Its explicit intention was to become a sort of manifesto of cultural independence.
Leaders of Modernism in Brazil and Portugal (02:03)
In Rio de Janeiro, the leader of "Modernismo" was Gra+ºa Aranha. In Portugal, the key figure of "Modernismo" was Fernando Pessoa.
Cultural and Political Changes in Brazil (03:00)
Latin America emerges from its agrarian and oligarchic past, moving into a middle-class oriented democratization. In 1930, the "New State" arises. Graciliano Ramos's "dry" style of writing and the conflict between the id and the world are the significant
Brazil's Literature of the 1930s (04:13)
In the 1930s, Jos+¬ Lins do R+¬go's "Nordestino" novels are stained with tragedy, depicting a society that was falling to pieces. Raul Bopp's poetry is featured and an excerpt included. Augusto Meyer cultivates a gaucho-style of "Modernismo" in his writing.
Concretism in Poetry: Poetry with Visual Characteristics (02:55)
Concrete poetry refers to verses that are written and graphically designed. The typographical arrangement of words is a key element to the work's overall intended effects. Poetry founders include D+¬cio Pignatari, Augusto de Campos, and Haroldo de Campos.
Brazilian Cordel Literature (01:09)
Printed in cheaply printed books and pamphlets, the cordel literary format was popular in formatting folk novels, poems, and songs. "Cordel" literally means "string literature and was popular in the 1920s and 1930s.
Generations of Influential Brazilian Writers (03:35)
In the 1940s, Carlos Drummond de Andrade establishes himself as a national poet. In the mid-1950s, Joao Rosa and Jorge Amado write their best novels. In the 1960s, Clarice Lispector emerges, and in the 1970s, Vanseca and N+¬lida Pi+¦on come into their own.
Literary Innovator in Brazilian Literature (03:20)
Renown for his expressive richness, and thematic creativity, Jo+úo Guimar+úes Rosa is the most important Brazilian writer in the genre of novels and short stories. Excerpt from "The Devil to Pay in the Backlands" in included.
Brazilian Folk Novels: Jorge Amado (01:58)
The writings of Jorge Amado are linked with San Salvador, the capital of the state of Bahia in Brazil's northeastern region. Amado publishes his first novel in 1933, followed by a stream of folk novels. Excerpt from "Gabriela, Clove and Cinnamon" included
Brazilian Urban Literature (03:16)
Amado's contemporary, +ërico Ver+¡ssimo, emerges as the most important urban Brazilian writer of the second half of the 20th century. Excerpts from his work and from Joao Cabral De Melo Neto's "The Word Silk" are included.
Psychological Approach to Literature (04:56)
The prose of Clarice Lispector is often characterized by a free-flowing stream of consciousness that allows for free association of ideas, characters, and themes. An excerpt from her work is included. She ushered in an era of fully realized modern prose.
Brazilian Writer Nélida Piñon (01:53)
Novelist and short story writer Nélida Piñon, influenced by Clarice Lispector, nevertheless developed a unique, award-winning literary style. Notable works include two books of short stories and many novels including "The Republic of Dreams."
Brazilian Literature for Social Change (03:46)
Alice Brant's novel "My Life as a Girl" shows the world through the eyes of a young girl. An excerpt from this novel is included. In the second half of the 20th century, a group of women writers devoted themselves to writing that would change society.
Novelist Rubem Fonseca (02:33)
Former police officer Rubem Fonseca narrates the rough and tumble life of city streets. His prose is agile, economical, accurate, and full of humor. An excerpt form his work is included.
Innovations in Brazilian Music (02:15)
Bossa nova music was born in the late to mid-1950s and lasted only six years. Vinicius de Moraes was a seminal figure in contemporary Brazilian music. As a poet, he wrote lyrics for a great number of songs that became all-time classics. An excerpt is incl
Postlude: Unique Nature of Brazilian Literature (02:10)
The unique origins of Brazil's literature distinguish its literary tradition from the Latin American cultural milieu. Brazil bred writers from wholly different backgrounds, and developed in an entirely different context.
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