Regionalism: Prelude (01:13)
At any time during its history, the writing of Latin American conceived different ways of perceiving literature. The innovations of "Modernismo" and the arrival of the "avant-garde" spurred many writers to seek national identity through local interests.
Latin American Literature: Realism vs. Regionalism (02:23)
Between 1915 and 1930, the conflict in the "novelas de la tierra" or "novels of the land" was between a new generation of writers and an aesthetic legacy. These writers denigrated novels of realism as "stylistically bland."
Regionalist Literature in Latin America (03:57)
Regionalist literature responds to the conflicts of the 19th century. Relevant novelists of this period include Gallegos, G++iraldes, and Rivera. Their novels highlight sociopolitical, economic, and aesthetic tensions in Latin American culture.
Novelist Ricardo Güiraldes: Rural Utopia (01:09)
The novels of Güiraldes reinvent the past; they describe a people and landscape that no longer existed. His fictional utopia is a response to modernization and urbanization. "Don Segundo Sombra" is a narrative liberated from strife and complexity.
A Novel of Naturalism and Realism: "The Vortex" (05:37)
In 1924, Colombian writer Jos+¬ Eustasio Rivera publishes "The Vortex," a novel of exploitation: man against nature, and man against man. This novel swells on the shadowy edges of civilization and debunks the myth of nationhood. Excerpt included.
Venezuelan novelist Rómulo Gallegos (03:53)
In 1929, the Venezuelan novelist Rómulo Gallegos published "Doña Bárbara," a novel contrasting civilization and barbarism. It is designed to expose the nation's troubles and to propose solutions. The novel features classic realist devices.
Horacio Quiroga: Latin American Author and Writer (04:07)
Author and writer Quiroga, a Uruguayan-born Argentine, wrote stories which, in their jungle settings, use the supernatural and the bizarre. This shows the influence of "modernismo." His writings emphasize language and brevity.
Latin American Novels of Revolution (05:01)
From 1910-1920, the revolution involved many key intellectuals of the time, both in politics and military action. Out of this came the revolutionary novelists, beginning with Mariano Azuela's "The Underdogs." Excerpts from the novel included.
Novelist Predecessors to the Latin American Boom (01:20)
Other novelists of the revolutionary novel grew up during the first part of the 20th century. They include Mart+¡n Luis Guzm+ín, Gregorio L+¦pez Fuentes, Rafael Mu+¦oz, and Nelly Campobello. Later writers followed such as Carlos Fuentes, who experimented with
Latin America: Indigenist Literature (04:42)
Indigenist narratives articulates the experience of South America's native peoples. It was strongly anchored in politics, revolution, and Marxism. Exploitation is seen as a product of a system that sees native peoples as "problems."
Enduring Indigenist Latin American Novels (02:10)
In contrast with previous mythic idealization of "glorious, pre-Hispanic past," the novels of Alcides Arguedas, Ventura Garcia Calderon, Jorge Icaza, and Cira Alegr+¡a, offered a raw view of aboriginal reality.
Peruvian Writer Alcides Arguedas (03:34)
Peruvian writer Alcides Arguedas elevated indigenous literature. Raised among the Quechua, he learns to speak Quechua and Spanish. He writes about the conflict between Indians and whites, and the mixed-race mestizos.
Pluralist Culture: Alcides Arguedas's "Deep River" (03:39)
Alcides Arguedas's "Deep River," the best of his novels, features an unforgettable child raised in Indian culture and then returned to the white world. He embodies the conflict between two civilizations. Excerpt included.
Regionalism: Postlude (01:07)
Latin American literature of the early 20th century offered up a wide spectrum of perspectives that often competed with one another. Regionalist literature and indigenous narrative looked to the real lives lived by everyday folk.
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