Introduction: The Memory of the Defeated (04:41)
After WWI, anarchism lost its influence on the world stage; outside of the industrial countries, anarchists continued to hold fast to ideals and create utopian communes. The USAT Buford transported foreign anarchists from the United States to Russia; propaganda emerged denouncing anarchism. (Credits)
1921: The Agony is Our Triumph (03:47)
Luigi Galleani advocated revolutionary violence and published "Cronaca Sovversiva." Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian-born American anarchists who were convicted of murdering a guard and a paymaster during an armed robbery. The "Save Sacco and Vanzetti" movement grows globally.
Surprising Ally (03:32)
Although communists executed and convicted anarchists in Russia, they embraced the cause to save Sacco and Vanzetti to further political interests in the United States. Authorities executed the duo in 1927. Michael Dukakis proclaimed that the pair were unjustly tried and convicted.
1926: General Union of Anarchists (04:49)
In the 1920s, artists and writers who were inspired by the anarchist movement flocked to Paris; the worker's party turned to Bolshevism after WWI. The communists attempted to appropriate anarchist symbols. Fascism arose and created the Proudhon Circle.
Organizing Anarchism (04:39)
Anarchists attempted to assassinate Benito Mussolini and Primo de Rivera. In June 1926, the "Organizational Platform of the General Union of Anarchists" pamphlet emerged, advocating for Nestor Makhno to lead the anarchist movement.
International Congress (02:15)
The "Organizational Platform for the General Union of Anarchists" further divided the movement. Delegates from around the globe attended the conference. Makhno promised Buenaventura Durutti that if a revolution occurred in Spain, he would fight with the self-proclaimed terrorist.
1936: A Las Barricadas (05:43)
Anarchists in Spain carried out violent acts and assassinated the prime minister prior to the Spanish Civil War. The National Confederation of Labor (CNT) helped elect socialists, communists, and libertarians to the government; General Franco ordered military rule. After the war broke out, Durutti led anarchist forces in Catalonia.
Libertarians Advance (05:00)
Anarchists advocated sharing food and supplies;, allowing the elderly retirement benefits; and working the land communally—they killed the town's priests. Communes abolished money and shared items based on need. While Henry Ford gave fascist troops military supplies, anarchists from around the world flocked to Spain to help the rebellion.
Creating Propaganda (04:17)
The CNT created news reel footage of the fighting in Aragon and its capital in Barcelona. Small business across the nation was managed collectively and did not lose productivity. In 1936, four libertarians became foreign ministers to prevent the government from carrying out anti-anarchist acts; grassroots anarchists did not like the change.
Anarchism Disseminates in Spain (04:17)
The Communist Party proposed the disbanding of the anarchist militia. Public opinion began to turn against Durutti and his followers. Durutti died under mysterious circumstances.
Great Repression Begins (04:31)
The May Days of 1937 began with the Battle of the Telefonica in Barcelona. Over 1,000 died in seven days. The government excluded anarchist federation, made all rural collectives illegal, and banned criticism of the Soviet Union. Socialists, capitalists, and communists banded together to ensure the anarchist experiment failed.
1939: Epilogue (02:51)
French Prime Minister Edouard Daladier re-imposed a forty-eight hour work week, signed the Munich Accords, and appointed Phillippe Petain as ambassador to Franco. Anarchists were rounded up and deported across the world. Hear Durutti's words about anarchism. (Credits)
Credits: No Gods, No Masters—Part Three: The Memory of the Defeated (1922-1945) (00:60)
Credits: No Gods, No Masters—Part Three: The Memory of the Defeated (1922-1945)
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