Land and Freedom: Introduction (02:37)
Louise Michel, Voltaire de Cleyre, Emma Goldman, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Buenaventura Durruti, and Ricardo Flores Magon are some of the greatest minds of anarchism. By the early 20th Century, anarchism had spread globally and anarchists decided to destroy the old world. (Credits)
1909: The New Man (03:05)
Individualists advocated mass conscientious objections, nudity, open unions, and free love. They created libertarian athenaeums in cities and built agricultural colonies in the country. Mary Gilmore settled in New Australia in Latin America. The utopian experiments began to close.
Constructive Educators (02:57)
Anarchists believed middle class schooling instilled authoritarian principles in children at an early age; education needed to incorporate anarchist beliefs. Educational reform experiments began around the world. Francisco Ferrer believed that secular, non-religious education should be available to children and adults, and cautioned against creating "good little anarchists."
Arrested and Condemned (04:31)
After the Spanish government executed Ferrer, riots erupted in Paris, the United States, and Japan. Anarchists like Buenaventura Durruti, the Solidarios, Severino Di Giovanni, and Nestor Makhno started to burgle the upper class as an assault on capitalism. Marius Jacob never attacked violently and would write notes to his victims.
Defiance and Demonstrations (06:14)
Two anarchists in an apartment held off 800 London police officers for over six hours. The Bonnot Gang operated in France and Octave Garnier used cars to commit robberies; Tiger brigades attempted to find the anarchists. Mass demonstrations occurred at Le Pre Saint Germain and Red Week.
1911: The Army of the Toilers (03:49)
The Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM), led by Enrique and Ricardo Flores Magon, called for vast agrarian reform. The organization inspired The House of the Worker, Emiliano Zapata insurrectionary army, and the Mexican branch of the IWW.
Organizing an Invasion of Baja California (03:16)
Members from the IWW and House of the Worker joined the PLM in seizing Mexicali and Tijuana. Anarchists across the world rejoiced, including Emma Goldman, Peter Kropotkin, Jack London, and Joe Hill. Authorities retook the lands, killed the Mexican insurgents, and detained the foreign anarchists.
Battle in the South (05:14)
Emiliano Zapata acted like an anarchist even if he did not consider himself one. Workers formed Red Battalions to fight against the Zapatistas and Pancho Villa's army in Mexico City. Authorities arrested Flores Magon and sentenced him to a high security prison; Zapata died during an ambush.
1917: All Power to the Soviets (04:21)
The Russian Revolution created an eight-hour work day, attacked injustice, and gave power to the people. Initially, anarchists believed it would become a truly communist country. Nikolay Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky wrote "What is to Be Done?" an essay which inspired Vladimir Lenin.
Storming of the Winter Palace (03:40)
Errico Malatesta saw the Russian Revolution as positive after hearing that Lenin stormed the Winter Palace. Nestor Makhno led the anarchist army uprising in Northern Crimea. When the Makhnovshchina seized a city, they freed its prisoners, redistributed the land, and drew plans for collective ownership of assets.
Russian Revolution (03:40)
In October 1919, Makhno and the anarchists saved the revolution. He joined forces with the Bolsheviks to combat the White Army. Anarchists began to grow critical of Lenin's position towards the proletariat; Leon Trotsky decidedto eradicate the anarchist threat by using propaganda.
Kropotkin Dies (03:46)
Authorities decide to host a national funeral for the father of anarchism; the Bolshevik party arranged for anarchists who were imprisoned to attend the funeral. Lenin ordered Lev Chernyi and Fanny Baron executed in the cellars of the prison. The Kronstadt commune and the Makhnovshchina were decimated by the Red Army.
Executions and Deportations (03:39)
The government executed and deported anarchists to Solovki. History books in Russia do not mention the role of anarchists during the revolution. Across the globe, authorities clamped down on anarchists; in Germany, Gustav Landauer's body was left in the street to rot.
Credits: No Gods, No Masters—Part Two: Land and Freedom (00:45)
Credits: No Gods, No Masters—Part Two: Land and Freedom
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