November 3rd, 1969 (02:52)
Watch President Richard Millhouse Nixon's speech addressing the Nation on the War in Vietnam. Experts and former dissenters describe why they began protesting the military action. The Ohio National Guard shot and killed four students at Kent State University.
December 31, 1970 (02:33)
Former students from Kent State University describe how the Vietnam War made them aware of American hypocrisy. Laura Davis recalls how she would eat dinner while watching newsmen discuss how many soldiers died that day. By 1970, most citizens believed sending troops to Vietnam was wrong, but were critical of the anti-war movement.
April 20, 1970 (03:01)
President Nixon pledges to withdraw 150,000 more American troops from Vietnam. Citizens began to feel that the war would soon be over. Patrick Buchanan recalls how the President told him he actually planned to send troops into Cambodia.
April 30, 1970 (01:58)
President Nixon justifies his sending troops into Cambodia in a speech on national television. Former soldiers recall how they were unaware of Nixon's intentions or the anger in the United States.
May 1, 1970 (02:27)
Violent anti-war demonstrations erupt on college campuses across the United States. President Nixon becomes enraged that members of congress start speaking out against the Cambodian Incursion and compares the students to bums.
Kent State University (01:09)
Mark Rudd visited the college campus and was surprised at how the student population was militant and conservative. Carolyn Knox recalls how the undergraduates wanted to search for truth. Gerald Casale remembers how the townies hated the campus.
May 1, 1970 11:30pm (00:29)
A riot breaks out outside a local tavern. The protestors chant and fights erupt between Kent State University students and the local population. Mayor LeRoy Satrom declares a state of emergency and a curfew is imposed.
Saturday, May 2 (02:02)
Ron Snyder, a former member of the Ohio Army National Guard, recalls being told that militants have taken over the university and they may possess machine guns. Laura Davis remembers her shock at students setting fire to the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) building. As fireman tried to douse the blaze, militants hacked at the hoses with knives.
Sunday, May 3 (02:16)
Governor Jim Rhodes blamed outsiders for the destruction called the student protesters un-American. Davis describes a sit-in held that night at Kent State University even though a curfew was in effect.
Monday, May 4: Part One (04:58)
The government deploys over 600 guardsmen to help disperse the crowd. Davis and Tolliver recall how festive the occasion seemed as they gathered for the rally. The guard deploys tear gas over the protestors, but the protestors fight back and toss the tear gas back at the soldiers.
Monday, May 4: Part Two (03:01)
Gunfire erupts. Ron Snyder checked his unit's weapons to ensure none of his men had fired. Professor Glenn Frank arrived and defused the situation by begging the students to leave; the students dispersed.
Soldiers in Cambodia hear a news report about the events at Kent State University. Terry Braun and Roy Orem recall their shock that Governor Rhodes allowed the Ohio National Guard to carry live ammunition.
Tuesday, May 5th (05:46)
58% of Americans responded in a Gallup poll that they believed the students were to blame for their own deaths. Alison Krause, Jeffrey Miller, Sandra Scheuer, and William Knox Schroeder died from gunshot wounds. Over 400 colleges and universities participate in the National Student Strike over the following week.
The National Student Strike of 1970 (02:33)
Watch images and news reports of the National Student Strike in the following week. Orem and Braun recall hearing about the riots during the Cambodian Incursion and coming under enemy fire.
Friday, May 8th Washington DC (03:20)
Police chief Jerry Wilson and the District of Columbia National Guard prepare for an anti-war demonstration. Buchanan recalls how troops formulated plans to defend the White House. President Nixon gives a live press conference and then spends the remainder of the night calling friends, politicians, and reporters.
5 AM (02:11)
President Nixon decides to visit the Lincoln Memorial to discuss the Vietnam War with 30 student dissidents holding a vigil.
Saturday, May 9th (02:21)
Watch news footage from the relatively peaceful protest. Buchanan felt President Nixon should let the dissenters voice their opinion.
Five Days Later (04:16)
Former student Gregory Antoine describes the protest where state troopers killed two students and injured twelve at Jackson State College. On May 20th, Nixon supporters gather for a rally in New York City. Timothy Naftali and Rick Perlstein describe how the administration exploited the student strike of 1970 in order to gain new members for the Republican Party.
By June 29th, the Last Troops Are Leaving Cambodia (02:15)
President Nixon declares the Cambodian Incursion a military success. Braun describes his relief at leaving the country. Orem remembers how he thought Vietnam was "the nice war."
Fall 1970 (03:19)
A grand jury in Ohio indicts 25 students on criminal charges and absolves the national guard of any responsibility in the Kent State Massacre. Former students discuss how their lives changed. The last massive anti-war demonstrations are held in the spring of 1971.
November 1972 (01:15)
The United States re-elects President Nixon, thereby ending the Anti-war Movement.
Credits: The Day the '60s Died (01:31)
Credits: The Day the '60s Died
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