Social Living (02:05)
Dolphins are known for their intelligence. All of the most clever animal species live in groups.
Dolphins in the Wild (02:06)
See footage of how these mammals work as a team to hunt fish. The size of their brains indicates that their ability to synchronize is not due to instinct.
Shift in Relative Brain Size (02:52)
Lori Marino is trying to estimate the brain size of ancient whales by examining skulls. Bodies and teeth shrank at the same time brains got bigger.
Shift to Social Living (02:01)
The shift in dolphin brain size coincided with the mammals living in groups. Pods can come together and form a mega pod of hundreds or thousands.
Fission Fusion Society (03:03)
Researchers tracking wild spotted dolphins have observed many types of relationships. Mothers and calves follow predictable patterns. Dolphins of the same sex form friendships.
Social Complexity and Bigger Brains (02:28)
Dolphins form relationships that change just like humans. They make a variety of sounds to communicate.
Strange Animal Experiment (02:20)
Lilly set out to teach a dolphin English. Margaret Howe lived with the mammal for two months in a house. It was an unethical failure.
Listening to Wild Dolphins (02:48)
Researchers use recorders in hopes of understanding dolphin language. There are no visual cues because sound is accomplished by vibrating tissue in nasal cavities.
Dolphin Sound Analysis (02:44)
Clicking is used for echolocation. Patterns are observed when a dolphin does a particular action. Hear brays, burst pulses, and signature whistles.
Amboseli National Park, Kenya (02:38)
Like dolphins, elephants use vocal calls to identify each other. Females stay with their families for their entire lives.
Elephant Contact Calls (01:45)
See how these mammals respond to recorded sounds. They react differently to unfamiliar voices.
Cooperation and Competition (01:51)
Insects are social animals with tiny brains. Ants work toward one goal; dolphins can work together or against each other.
Observation in Captivity (02:58)
A cognition expert believes secrets of the dolphin brain can only be unlocked in aquariums. She uses a one way mirror to determine if dolphins recognize themselves.
Extent of Awareness (02:33)
Dolphins, elephants, and chimpanzees can recognize themselves in a mirror; humans under 18 months old do not. Do any animals think about the thoughts of others?
Deception Experiment (03:10)
Chimpanzee groups have a ranking system. See how a low ranking chimp reacts when she is privy to information unknown by a dominant group member.
Fairness Test (02:52)
Manipulating others can be advantageous to social living, but there are disadvantages to deception. Capuchin monkeys will protest if they are not given the same treat as another.
Concern for Others (02:08)
Bonobos are highly social chimps. An experiment reveals that they will share food with strangers. Elephants will console others in distress.
Social Interest After Death (03:20)
Elephants have an intense response to skulls of others killed by poachers. They do not respond to other herbivore bones.
Inter-species Interaction (02:04)
Relationships are essential to the survival of social creatures. A group of divers is approached by a dolphin that needs help.
Parallels with People (02:25)
Humans are not the only social species. Evidence shows that evolution can promote cooperation as well as dominance.
Credits: Who's the Smartest? (01:13)
Credits: Who's the Smartest?
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