The skeleton gives the human body its shape and allows movement. Meet Janelly, a nine-year-old with a rare bone disease.
Growing Bones (02:57)
Fetuses begin without bones, and then grow cartilage that will harden into bone with the help of osteoblasts and TNSLAP. Janelly is missing the gene that creates the TNSLAP protein, her bones never hardened.
Trial Drug (03:39)
Janelly was born without bones. After a trial medicine, she began growing them at age nine.
Rhesus Null Blood (02:53)
Fetal blood gets oxygen from the mother's blood; the blood changes to get oxygen from the air by birth. Meet Thomas, who has the rarest type of blood.
Blood Types (03:01)
The presence or absence of antigens determines blood type. The immune system attacks blood introduced into the body that does not have compatible antigens. Thomas's rare blood type attacks all others.
Hearing Development (04:59)
During the 28th week of pregnancy, hearing begins to develop. Fetuses can hear noises from outside the womb and may even form memories from those sounds.
Vision Development (04:33)
During the 29th week of pregnancy, vision begins to develop. On Colorblind Island, 10%of the population does not have cones in their retinas, making them completely colorblind.
Approximately 10% of the people on Pingelap are completely colorblind—inherited from an ancient king and fostered from beliefs of marrying within the community. This complete color blindness allows them to see at night.
The likelihood of diabetes may be programmed through diet in the womb. Changing this familiar diet later in life can lead to diabetes.
Global Migration (02:24)
A diet higher in fats and calories than the mother consumed while pregnant, could lead to greater risk of diabetes. The human migration from villages to cities increases the number of people at risk.
Mice Study (02:08)
Experts used mice to test the effects of the mother's health on the child. The mouse that received supplements gave birth to a healthy mouse. The mouse with no supplements gave birth to an overweight and off colored mouse.
Prenatal Stress (03:15)
In January of 1998, an ice storm hit Quebec, trapping many of its residents without power. Suzanne King created a research group of the pregnant residents to study the effects of prenatal stress on the children.
Effect of Stress (04:07)
Professor King discovered that the number of days the mothers spent without power in the ice storm directly correlated to the likelihood of problems in the children.
Lung Development (04:57)
At 36 weeks, all of the organs except the lungs are developed. Meet Sam, a free diver that overcame challenges of being born premature with partially developed lungs.
Countdown to Birth (03:40)
Over nine months of pregnancy, one cell evolves into trillions. The last step is to for the lungs to take the first breath of air.
Credits: The Final Countdown: 9 Months That Made You (01:13)
Credits: The Final Countdown: 9 Months That Made You
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