Introduction: Where Did the Universe Come From? (03:18)
Stephen Hawking discusses the Big Bang Theory. Paul, Marcia, and Alejandro are introduced and given a deep field photograph from the Hubble Telescope containing 10,000 galaxies.
Counting Galaxies Experiment (02:53)
Volunteers are given a ball, photograph, and telescope to calculate the spherical surface area around the ball by occupying the telescopes field of view with the photo.
A Glimpse Changed Everything (01:43)
The old concept of nebulae is discussed. Inception of the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1926 allowed Hubble to view nebulous forms in space as multiple galaxies.
Counting Galaxies Experiment Results (04:00)
Volunteers calculate the radial proximity from the ball to the picture when the telescopes field of view is occupied. Hawking gives the formula to calculate the surface area of the sphere. Participants discuss their result.
Speed and Sound Experiment (04:01)
Participants are challenged with calculating the speed and direction car siren using the sound of its siren. Marcia determines the Doppler Effect is relevant to their test.
Speed and Sound Experiment Observations (04:05)
Christian Doppler, a 19th Century physicist, observed sound wave frequencies being affected by the motion of the source. Volunteers run a variation to the original test by moving further away to gather more accurate data.
Speed and Sound Experiment Results (03:22)
Participants conclude that the Doppler Effect affects sound and light waves. The speed and direction of a galaxy can be determined by observing their color.
Doppler Shift (01:59)
Light waves are seen as blue moving toward an object and red moving away. Neil Turok elaborates on this principle to explain expansion of the universe and the origin of the Big Bang theory.
Big Bang Signature
Scientists conclude energy from the Big Bang could be detected as microwave radiation. Arno Penzius and Robert Williams co-discover cosmic microwave background radiation.
No Ordinary Race Challenge (03:52)
Hawking explores the way the universe is expanding. Participants set up racers with starting positions relative to several galaxies proximity to earth.
No Ordinary Race Results (02:32)
Volunteers observe the speed of each runner and discover galaxies travel at different speeds.
Big Bang on Ice Test (03:52)
Paul, Marcia, and Alejandro replicate the Big Bang with inflatable balloons. They stand and inflate the balloons. Three hockey players contribute.
Big Bang on Ice Results (03:20)
Volunteers line up the hockey team with inflatable bags in between them. They discuss why galaxies far away travel faster than closer ones.
Georges Lemaître (02:29)
Lemaître built on Einstein's theory of gravity and applied it to space. In 1927, he published his work which marked the birth of the Big Bang Theory. The uniform expansion of space is discussed.
Billion Year Test (02:01)
Volunteers are presented with two large light panels. They superimpose them to find where galaxies have traveled over a one billion year period.
Billion Year Results (04:21)
Paul, Marcia, and Alejandro take turns lining up galaxies on light panels to pinpoint the Big Bang. They discover that the origin point of the universe is relative to the observer.
It Began Here (02:01)
Participants discuss how uniform space expansion results in multiple origin points. They conclude that the origin of the universe is here. Hawking revisits the Big Bang Theory.
Credits: Genius By Stephen Hawking: Where Did the Universe Come From? (00:39)
Credits: Genius By Stephen Hawking: Where Did the Universe Come From?
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