Carl "Tooey" Spaatz: Introduction (01:16)
Spaatz's career spanned the formative years of American military aviation. He trained American pilots, flew in combat, pioneered air-to-air refueling, and commanded the Strategic Air Forces during WWII.
Credits: Agile Method (00:30)
Credits: Agile Method
Spaatz's Early Career (03:45)
Spaatz participated on the Punitive Expedition to Mexico in 1916. In 1917, he married Ruth Harrison and took command of flight training in Issoudun, France; he spent four weeks in combat. After the war, Spaatz testified that the War Department was purposefully slowing the development of air power.
Modern War (02:08)
Spaatz was promoted to Lt. Col., assigned to the General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, transferred to Fort Langley where he implemented a modern pilot training program, and witnessed air power in London during WWII. George Marshall gave the Air Corps a measure of autonomy and made Spaatz the first Chief of Staff for the Army Air Forces.
Air Campaigns (02:38)
Spaatz moved to Alexandria, Virginia five days before Japan attacked Pearl Harbor; he became commander of the 8th Air Force. The British used area bombing while the U.S. preferred daylight bombing. Spaatz went to North Africa to strengthen British and American ties.
Strategic Campaigns (03:22)
Spaatz became commander of all strategic forces in Europe. President Eisenhower devoted half of the bombers to German plane factory destruction and the other half to the destruction of German transportation; Spaatz received permission to bomb oil infrastructures.
Allied Air Power (02:45)
P-51 Mustang pilots successfully targeted the Luftwaffe. In June 1944, the Allies invaded Normandy; the Germans mounted a final counterattack in December. Spaatz ordered attacks on Berlin, Dresden, Nuremberg, and initiated Operation Clarion.
End of WWII (02:22)
Spaatz commanded the 8th Air Force in Okinawa and the 20th Air Force in Guam. While visiting family, he learned about the atomic bomb and insisted the order to drop the bomb be put in writing. Spaatz attended the surrender ceremony.
Post-War Career (01:28)
Congress liberated the U.S. Air Force from Army command in 1947 and Spaatz became its first Chief of Staff. In 1952, he chaired a committee to determine the location of the Air Force Academy. Spaatz died in 1974.
Credits: Legends of Air Power: Carl "Tooey" Spaatz (00:20)
Credits: Legends of Air Power: Carl "Tooey" Spaatz
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