No Calories or Consequences (03:10)
Experts argue whether artificial sweeteners are efficacious. Saccharin began in World War II as an alternative to sugar during rationing. Today, artificial sweeteners include steviol glycosides, Neotame, acesulfame potassium, saccharin, aspartame, alitame, advantame, thaumatin, sucralose, and cyclamate.
Tastes Like Sugar (02:51)
Aspartame consists of two amino acids To be considered sweet, a molecule must bond with taste receptors in a certain manner. Some individuals cannot process Phenylalanine.
Scientific Studies (05:50)
The University of Sidney determined that sucralose may fuel weight gain in fruit flies and mice. Susan Swithers saw metabolic changes in rats that received saccharin instead of sugar. Dr. Zeeshan Arain undergoes testing to track changes in his blood glucose level.
Observational Studies (02:47)
Swithers attests that people who consume one or more diet sodas will gain weight and belly fat. Meghan Azad found that mothers who consumed diet soda had children who were more overweight. Geoff Parker argues that these studies are not evidence-based.
The Big Picture (02:28)
Peter Rogers examined over 90 animal and 150 human studies, and determined that artificial sweeteners help people lose weight as long as one does not replace the calories saved with other foods.
Searching for Dinosaurs (03:24)
At James Price Point, Steve Salisbury walked in the footsteps of a stegosaurus. In 2013, he filmed an expedition to Antarctica in search of fossils. During the austral summer, rocks become exposed.
Cretaceous- Paleogene Extinction Event (03:30)
To determine what species went extinct, scientists need to study rocks that existed before and after the KT event. Antarctica possessed forests 67 million years ago. The chances of Salisbury's expedition discovering a complete fossilized dinosaur are slim; the team looks at ammonites and dinosaur fossils.
At Vega Island (04:07)
Salisbury examines every rock on the hill for ten days and discovers several plesiosaurs' remains. None have yet been confirmed as a dinosaur skeleton. The team hopes to go back and further explore Antarctica.
Preview and Credits (00:39)
See a preview for an upcoming episode of catalyst about biotechnology and the human body. (Credits)
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