Protein Powder Study (05:09)
Protein supplements are marketed to avoid muscle wasting during aging. In Glasgow, Dr. Chris van Tulleken tests whether they are easily used by muscles, as advertised. Quadriceps samples before and after exercising confirm they go straight to his muscles for rebuilding tissue.
Aging and Muscle Wasting (02:24)
NHS doctors recommend 150 minutes of exercise per week, including strength training. Dr. Michael Mosley cannot convince passersby to lift weights. Dr. Phillip Atherton takes an ultrasound of his thigh muscle; above age 40 we lose up to 1% of mass annually.
Household Strength Training Study (04:19)
Volunteers above 40 are tested for leg strength, thigh muscle size, and grip strength. They are instructed to do exercises like the grocery bicep curl and vacuuming lunge. After 4 weeks, they have increased muscle mass, leg strength, leg power, and grip.
Antioxidant Marketing (02:28)
Dr. Gabrielle Weston explains that antioxidants are supposed to mop up free radicals thought to cause cell damage. Scientists compare antioxidant levels in juices advertising health claims to normal orange juice, and conclude most of the antioxidant power comes from vitamin C.
Antioxidant Health Study (03:25)
Dr. Kerstin Brandt's team measures antioxidant levels in volunteer's blood before and after drinking smoothies. They increase, and then decrease sharply as the body maintains homeostasis. Hear why free radicals are actually important for our health, contrary to juice advertisements.
Burning Fat without More Effort (05:25)
New research shows when we exercise can affect how many calories burned. Siblings Josh and Jess are monitored for fuel used during exercise on an empty stomach, and at rest after breakfast. Josh burns more before eating, and Jess the opposite—suggesting that men and women have different mechanisms.
Protein Supplement and Muscle Size (04:24)
A previous study showed that protein supplements go straight to muscles during exercise. Volunteers undergo an exercise regime; half drink a protein shake and the rest a placebo. Results show no difference between the groups; excess protein is burned as energy, stored as fat or expelled as urine.
Gender and Fat Burning Exercise Study (01:57)
A previous study suggested that men burn more fat on an empty stomach and women burn more fat on a full stomach. Two groups of volunteers test this theory under controlled conditions. Half exercise before breakfast and half after.
Bionic Eye Operation (03:36)
Rhianne Lewis suffers retinitis pigmentosa and is nearly blind. A treatment trialed in Oxford could return some sight. Surgeons insert an electronic chip under a microscope— a delicate, 10 hour process risking nerve damage.
Bionic Eye Rehabilitation (03:51)
After implantation, Rhianne's brain has to relearn how to interpret visual data. She recognizes hands on a clock during a therapy session. Six months later, she is regaining depth perception.
Limits to Fat Debate: Pro-Fat (03:45)
The BMI has been criticized as a poor obesity measure. Professor Fredrik Karpe argues that overweight people without metabolic problems may not benefit from weight loss. Fat stored on the legs, thighs and bottom is "good," while fat stored around the waist increases disease risk.
Limits to Fat Debate: Anti-Fat (04:17)
Professor Nicholas Finer says that losing weight when over 25 BMI is almost always beneficial and lowers diabetes and heart disease risk. He argues that the hip to waist ratio is irrelevant. Mosley summarizes both sides of the debate.
Gender and Fat Burning Exercise Results (04:21)
Groups of volunteers exercise either before breakfast or afterwards. Most women burn more fat after eating and most men burn more fat on an empty stomach. Men have more muscle, and therefore more stored carbohydrates; women are better designed to burn fat during exercise.
Credits: Exercise: Episode 1—Trust Me…I'm a Doctor, Series 4 (00:28)
Credits: Exercise: Episode 1—Trust Me…I'm a Doctor, Series 4
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