Beyond the Rainbow: Episode 3— Introduction (01:34)
This segment orients viewers to Dr. Helen Czerski's exploration of invisible colors.
Color Spectrum (02:47)
Runners participate in a "color fun run." We see only a fraction of the spectrum. Perception of color depends on how eyes take in light and what the brain does with the information. See a dress that caused a color debate.
Color Perception (04:08)
Using the dress that caused a debate on the Internet, Prof. Anya Hurlbert explains the role of light in perception. Daylight has a regular set of variations but is constantly changing; we adapt our interpretation of color.
Color Constancy (03:29)
Prof. Hurlbert explains why people perceived the color of the dress differently. How our eyes detect light and our brain interprets the information determines the colors we see. Czerski participates in a demonstration that adjusts the sensitivity of light receptors in the eye.
Infrared Light (04:21)
William Herschel discovered that wavelengths of light have different temperatures and that light exists beyond the visible spectrum. A special camera converts infrared into visible colors; hot objects release energy in the form of infrared light.
Czerski rides aboard the Boeing 747 equipped with a telescope that allows scientists to view the universe in infrared.
Infrared Astronomy (03:53)
Dr. Jim De Buizer explains the value of using infrared to examine the universe. Czerski explains how the telescope aboard the 747 adjusts to turbulence. See images of the Orion Nebula and Horsehead Nebula.
Beyond the Visible Spectrum (02:49)
Czerski reflects on her experience aboard SOFIA. After Herschel's discovery of infrared, scientists turned their attention to the opposite end of the color spectrum.
Ultraviolet Light (03:01)
Johann Ritter discovered color beyond the blue part of the color spectrum. Prof. Ron Douglas explains the starlings' relationship with UV.
Keen Eyesight (02:29)
The eagle's ability to see detail is two times better than a human's. A lens in the eye filters out most UV light to produce a better quality image.
Ultraviolet Vision (02:38)
The honeybee can see in UV; Czerski uses a special camera to see like a bee. Flowers take advantage of ultraviolet light to attract bees.
Czerski examines the first x-ray taken by Wilhelm Röntgen. X-rays have a short wavelength and high energy, and are a source of radiation.
Biomedical Imaging (03:20)
Prof. Mark Lythgoe makes a glass tube disappear, illustrating refractive index. He applied the technique to human organs, revealing hidden colors.
Autofluorescence and Photoacoustic Effect (05:12)
Lythgoe uses autofluorescence to illuminate diseased areas in the liver; it currently only works on dead tissue. Lythgoe is working on a technique to adapt it to the living body; see the blood vessels inside Czerski's hand.
Appreciating the Color Spectrum (02:05)
Czerski reflects on the potential of Lythgoe's work on autofluorescence and the photoacoustic effect. She summarizes her exploration of color during the course of the three video series.
Credits: Beyond the Rainbow: Episode 3—Color, The Spectrum of Science (00:33)
Credits: Beyond the Rainbow: Episode 3—Color, The Spectrum of Science
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