Antipsychotic Agents Overview (01:02)
Until the 1950s, the only treatment for psychotic disorders was physical restraint. New medications have brought hope to patients.
Signs and Symptoms (03:25)
Schizophrenia is characterized by altered perceptions and behaviors resulting from fundamental brain dysfunction. View positive, negative, cognitive, and mood symptoms. The presence of mood symptoms changes diagnosis to schizoaffective disorder and impacts ability to perform daily activities. Learn about comorbid conditions.
Learn about methods for assessing schizophrenic patients, including making contact, communicating, and building a database.
Pathology of Schizophrenia (00:47)
Neurotransmitters enable electrical impulses between cells and are responsible for thought and sensation transmission. An imbalance can lead to mental disturbances. Chemicals blocking or enhancing transmitters and PET scans are improving our understanding of disorders and treatment.
Schizophrenia Interventions (01:05)
Empathetic listening and an appropriate response help calm patients. Determine and prioritize problems, create a plan, and develop interventions. Individual counseling, group therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, diet, and exercise may play a role.
Antipsychotic Medications: First Generation Agents (02:11)
Antipsychotic agents are grouped into first and second generation agents. Typical agents act as dopamine receptor antagonists, quelling positive symptoms in two thirds of schizophrenia patients. They include chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and fluphenazine. Learn about side effects.
Antipsychotic Medications: Second Generation Agents (05:44)
Atypical agents treat a broader spectrum of psychiatric symptoms. They block dopamine and specific serotonin sites, impacting large areas of brain function. They include clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole. Learn about side effects, including akathisia, liver toxicity, and hypotension.
Side Effects (04:21)
Antipsychotics have extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) caused by imbalances in dopamine and acetylcholine. Autonomic nervous system changes may occur and hormonal changes may result in sexual dysfunction. Thioridazine can cause cardiac conduction abnormalities; clozapine can cause agranulocytosis; second generation agents can increase type 2 diabetes risks.
Credits: Antipsychotic Agents: Psychotropic Medications (00:43)
Credits: Antipsychotic Agents: Psychotropic Medications
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