Psychotropic Medication Overview (01:09)
Mentally ill patients were treated inhumanely until the 1950s. Chlorpromazine was found to calm and alleviate psychotic symptoms. In 1954, it was introduced under the brand name Thorazine.
Role of Neurotransmitters (01:06)
Neurotransmitters allow neurologic impulses to cross synapses. Imbalances in serotonin and norepinephrine lead to mental difficulties. Medication can restore the balance.
Mentally ill patients are generally no longer able to function normally in their environment. Hear behavioral and somatic symptoms. Abnormal behaviors may also indicate a physical problem; psychotropic medications may interact with other drugs. Learn about using therapeutic communication techniques.
Healthcare providers must determine whether the patient is a danger to themselves or others, whether they want help, and what the intervention options and goals are. Treatments include psychotropic medication and psychotherapy.
Psychotropic Medication (03:10)
Psychotropic medication blocks excesses of certain brain chemicals, enhances the effectiveness of existing chemicals, or mimics and improves on the action of deficient chemicals. Side effects often include hypotension. Compliance is crucial for success. Classes include antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety agents, mood stabilizers, and stimulants.
Antipsychotic Agents (02:44)
Neuroleptic agents are used to treat hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia. Typical agents include haloperidol, thioridazine, thiothixene fluphenazine, and chlorpromazine. Most patients respond to first generation agents, but side effects may lead to noncompliance. Atypical agents include aripiprazole, clozapine, ziprasidone, risperidone, quetiapine, and olanzapine.
Antidepressant Agents (03:50)
Antidepressant groups include tricyclics, SSRIs, SNRIs, and MAOIs. Tricyclics include clomipramine, amitriptyline, desipramine, imipramine, and protriptyline. SSRIs include citalopram, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, fluoxetine, and sertraline. SNRIs include duloxetine, venlafaxine, and desvenlafaxine. MAOIs include phenelzine and tranylcypromine. Non-classified agents include trazodone, mirtazapine, nefazodone, and bupropion.
Anti-Obsessive Agents (00:32)
Certain antidepressants have been approved for treating OCD, including clomipramine, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline. Treatment is most effective when combined with psychotherapy.
Anxiolytic (Antianxiety) Agents (01:34)
Anxiolytic agents are used as sedatives. Benzodiazepine group agents are less common due to abuse potential. Alternatives include clonazepam for social phobia, lorazepam for panic disorder, and alprazolam used for panic disorder and GAD. Beta-blockers, tricyclics, SSRIs, and MAOIs can be used for physical anxiety symptoms.
Mood Stabilizers (00:44)
Bipolar disorder medications include lithium for mania and lamotrigine for depression. The anti-convulsant divalproex sodium is commonly prescribed with lithium. Anti-psychotics include aripiprazole, ziprasidone, quetiapine fumarate, and olanzapine.
Stimulant medications treat ADHD and narcolepsy, and depression when other medications are ineffective. They include methylphenidate, amphetamine, and dextroamphetamine. Non-stimulant drugs recently used for ADHD include atomoxetine, classified as an NSRI; guanfacine, an anti-hypertensive; and bupropion, an atypical antidepressant.
Individual Psychotherapy (02:50)
Non-pharmaceutical modalities include psychotherapy and social and vocational training. Mental health professionals assist patients to understand the causes of their behaviors and develop techniques for controlling them. Learn about interpersonal, cognitive behavioral, exposure, and dialectical behavior therapies.
Psychoeducation educates individuals about their illness. Treatment often includes family counseling sessions to help recognize a relapse or medication side effects.
Self-Help and Support Groups (01:06)
Facilitators have expertise in group dynamics; support groups are also available for family members. Good care requires complete patient assessment, familiarity with illness markers, treatment knowledge, monitoring for medication side effects, and listening to verbal and nonverbal cues.
Credits: Assessment and Intervention: Psychotropic Medications (00:46)
Credits: Assessment and Intervention: Psychotropic Medications
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