Diminishing Human Intelligence (03:31)
Dr. Jan te Nijenhuis says we take 50 milliseconds longer to react to simple data compared to Sir Francis Galton's study in the 1800s. People in the 19th century were four times more innovative than people are now.
Intelligence of Prehistoric Man (04:01)
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute study the reconstructed skulls of cavemen. Jean-Jacques believes intelligence is linked to brain size (e.g. whales and dolphins). The human brain grew for two million years before reaching its maximum size about 15,000 years ago.
Intelligence Quotient: Alfred Binet (05:17)
We continually evaluate intelligence; it is the second biggest factor after physical attraction. The first IQ test was developed in 1905, when the French education ministry asked Binet to devise a way of detecting learning difficulties in children.
Flynn Effect (04:28)
After studying IQ tests from 14 nations, New Zealand researcher James Flynn discovered massive gains over the last 60 years. These increases are due to improvements in our diet and education and a familiarity with testing methodology.
Neural Efficiency (04:32)
Richard Haier debunks the myth that the brain has a center of intelligence. Cerebral imaging shows the importance of cross-talk in the brain while intelligent problem solving is in progress. A surprising find is that an intelligent brain is less active.
Elephants and Color Word Test (02:56)
At the Sorbonne University, the electrical activity in children's brains is measured while they solve problems. The brain of a child below eight is "trapped in visual spacial intelligence," says Professor Olivier Houdé. Participants show difficulty in performing John Ridley Stroop's test.
Brain White Matter (01:38)
Dr. Douglas Fields describes the area of the human brain that contains billions of axons. These are protected by myelin, which develops after birth.
Pollutants Retard Brain Development (02:17)
The production of myelin is being disrupted by chemicals which interfere with the thyroid gland's ability to produce triiodothyronine. More than 100 pesticides have been shown to block specific receptors needed for brain development.
Glial Cells: Astrocytes (03:39)
Glia outnumber neurons and form their own environment. Hoping to find the secrets of intelligence, Thomas Stoltz Harvey stole and kept Albert Einstein's brain for 27 years. Dr. Fields lists the important functions of astrocytes.
Astrocyte Experiment on Mice (01:46)
Scientists from the University of Rochester graft human astrocytes into mice brains. The grafted mice show improved memory and learning. The mice are tested in a maze.
Twin Intelligence Study (04:13)
Hear about Robert Ploman's research on the genes responsible for intelligence. Over 300 have been found to affect intelligence; this only represents one percent. Intelligence, influenced by interaction between several thousand genes, produces different effects according to the region of the brain where they are active.
Immigration Act of 1924 (01:46)
Intelligence is what best predicts our profession and level of studies. Immigrants are thought of as less intelligent based on low test results. Fewer are allowed into the U.S. to prevent a lowering of IQs.
Racist Theories (03:03)
In this 1974 television interview, Dr. William Shockley declares Blacks have genetically low intelligence and suggests sterilization. Josef Schovanec recalls being thought of as intellectually deficient. The autistic author has a PhD and speaks seven languages.
Dimensions of Intelligence (02:37)
Mozart's mental musical ability can be compared to a mathematician that can hold seven or eight formulas. There are different forms of intelligence and you can be at the top in one and at the bottom in another.
Intelligent and Creative Reasoning (02:40)
Dr. Jung studies how the reasoning process is different from intelligence and how they work together. He examines the brain of a musician. Intelligence networking is thought to reside on the outside of the brain; creativity is largely involved with the DMN.
Inventive/Creative Reasoning (02:54)
Schovanec says to be creative in a particular field, one must first be educated in it; sterile research lacks the flow of information. He recalls realizing he was different and forming a pluralistic view of the world.
Credits: Intelligence Under The Microscope—Brain Power (00:31)
Credits: Intelligence Under The Microscope—Brain Power
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