Interrogate This: Introduction (04:46)
Watch two scenarios and choose which one is morally correct. In 2001, 15,000 psychologists debate where the "line in the sand" is for psychologists working with national security detainees. Throughout this film, follow the story of two boys accused of a crime.
Fear and Interrogation (04:17)
Terrorists are in custody for acts of war against the U.S.; 90% were turned in by warlords for cash payments. Shara Sand states that most U.S. citizens do not know what it is like to live in a war torn country so fear is a cultivated. She is in favor of the moratorium and cites Philip Zimbardo's Stanford prison experiment.
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (04:52)
The American Psychological Association does not condone psychologist involvement in advanced interrogation techniques. Lawyer William Teesdale has been speaking with detainee Adel Hassan Hamad; Dr. Najibullah Zalmai worked with Hamad at the hospital in Peshawar.
APA's Position on Psychologists and Interrogation (03:02)
Bernice Lott and Ghislaine Boulanger discuss when ethics and interrogations became salient among psychologists and the APA's decision not to officially endorse the presence of psychiatrists in areas like Guantanamo. Teesdale spoke to several witnesses, including Dr. Sailani, who described Hamad as a good man.
Everyone has a Breaking Point (02:15)
Boulanger connected with other APA members who withheld their dues and resigned. She supports psychiatrists who do not participate in interrogations, but care for the mental health of detainees.
Ethics and Interrogation (03:07)
Dr. Steven Reisner recalls a military memo identifying the use of only psychologists on interrogation teams. The Bush Administration claims it uses secret enhanced techniques, not torture. See "The Adventures of Mr. Knuckles," mocking the claim.
Leave Interrogation to Trained Interrogators (01:54)
Reisner states that psychologists "carve out" an unethical position when they are too close to the action of interrogation. Psychologists could attend interrogation school and teach interrogators how to identify counter transference.
Secret Interrogation Methods (05:02)
Leonard Rubenstein states that using psychologists as part of the checks and balances during interrogations puts them in an impossible situation; U.S. interrogation methods developed with the CIA need to stop. See "The Adventures of Mr. Knuckles: Hide and Go Secret!" Rubenstein states the major mental health issues in places like Guantanamo are indefinite detention and abuse.
Improper Participation (03:13)
Neil Altman is an advocate for the moratorium resolution. Media reports indicated that psychologists were involved in the transfer of information about torture; the PENS task force clarified involvement.
National Security is a Growth Industry (02:57)
Altman discusses a moratorium against psychologist participation in interrogations and recalls a psychologist who was adamant that psychologists be present in detention centers. Kleinman suggested codification of what interrogator training should include.
Crossing the Ethical Line (02:52)
Dr. Stephen Soldz states that interrogations do not strive to benefit those whom psychologists are working with; those who provide treatment at CIA facilities are likely over the line. He states that U.S. government agencies have been involved in torture for decades.
Democracy in Psychology (02:42)
Soldz discusses the demonstration regarding psychologists and interrogation at the 2001 APA convention and the formal processes of the vote. He reflects on the outcome.
Chief Psychologist (06:02)
Michael Gelles supports finding a way to define how psychologists operate within detention centers. He discusses the idea to action process for the interrogation rules of engagement, citing the case of Mohammad al-Qahtani, and writing an alternative approach plan for GTMO; see Defense Department footage of the USS Cole.
Response to Terror (04:54)
Dr. Peter Suedfeld reflects on the Psychologists for an Ethical APA organization and its implications. He describes his boundaries for mental health professionals participating in interrogation; there is a "trade-off."
Psychologists in National Security (03:53)
Suedfeld discusses psychologists helping interrogators get information without inflicting major psychological and physical pain. He refutes the assumption that if a psychologist works with the government, he or she engages in unethical interrogations. Suedfeld explains his background.
Military Psychology (03:25)
LCDR Carrie Kennedy discusses initial conversations with detainees at GTMO. The 1972 terrorist attacks at the Munich Olympics resulted in new hostage negotiation strategies including the use of psychologists.
Health Services at GTMO (02:41)
Kennedy discusses Red Cross visits to GTMO, the Behavioral Science Consultation Team (BSCT), and the scrutiny of military psychologists. She thinks detainees understood that medical was there to provide medical care.
GTMO Mental Health Care (03:27)
Kennedy describes GTMO as a work in progress. The mental health clinic has improved in providing mental health care; psychologists treat detainees and guards. Detainees supported each other.
Amendment on Participation in Interrogation (04:41)
Dr. Stephen Behnke discusses the vote at the 2001 APA convention. Hear excerpts of psychologists' testimony for and against the amendment. The APA banned members from participating in torture.
Enhanced Interrogation Techniques (03:50)
In 2007, the APA adopted a resolution naming specific prohibited interrogation techniques; intent clarification in 2008 was widely supported. Psychologists do not conduct interrogations; they are in an advisory role. Behnke describes what the ethical issues were like for him.
Civil Disobedience (02:28)
The APA affirms a psychologist's decision to disobey laws, regulations, or orders when they conflict with ethics. The decision is consistent with the Revised- Army Field Manual.
Presidential Task Force on Psychological Ethics and National Security (02:30)
Olivia Moorehead-Slaughter discusses becoming chair of the task force and her professional background. See an excerpt from the PENS Task Force report.
APA's Position on Torture (02:57)
Moorehead-Slaughter does not believe there is enough evidence for those who do not agree with APA on psychologists' involvement in places like Guantanamo Bay to change their minds.
Detainment and Release (04:46)
Steven M. Kleinman discusses not understanding how to systematically identify individuals with valuable information. He discusses acknowledging detaining incorrect individuals and releasing them; see images of men released from Abu Ghraib. Kleinman compares interrogation during WWII to interrogation now.
Psychologists and Detainees (03:27)
Kleinman states that interrogation is a critical capability and the U.S. is not very good at it. Mental health support is important for interrogation. See images of detainees at Camp Bucca, Abu Ghraib,
Interrogate This: Update (00:57)
This segment provides updated information on Hamad, Reisner, the rights of Guantanamo Bay detainees, and the 2008 APA referendum.
Credits: Interrogate This: Psychologists Take on Terror (01:17)
Credits: Interrogate This: Psychologists Take on Terror
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