Processing Communication Stimuli (04:53)
Processing communication is a three step process: selective attention, perceptual filters, and predispositions. Courtney Miller cites examples of things that can influence our interpretations.
The Johari Window (05:21)
In the 1950s, Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham devised a way to conceptualize self-disclosure. The four windows can vary in size.
Symbols and Referents (04:55)
Dr. Susan Wildermuth states "all human communication is symbolic." A symbol is something that represents a referent; the connection between the two can be easy or difficult to distinguish. C.U. Ogden and I. A. Richards proposed the Triangle of Meaning in the 1920s.
Overlapping Codes (04:43)
Different cultures and co-cultures can have different codes; some shared meaning is necessary to communicate. Some non-verbals are not universal and can cause miscommunication. Dominant cultures tend to set the code; co-cultures may have to modify the message.
Distance Zones (05:09)
When studying North Americans, Edward T. Hall identified differences in spatial zones. The four main distance zones include: intimate zone, personal zone, social zone, and public zone. Different cultures have different spatial zones.
Paralanguage is the non-verbal components of a verbal message. Vocal cues include speed, tone, pitch, volume, and expression; it is important to know how you sound to others. Vocalizations are sounds that may have varying meanings.
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