Biomechanics: Introduction (02:28)
Experts define biomechanics and how it is used. Kinesiology was built around a multi-disciplinary approach. Certain techniques allow one to have better performance.
Foundation of Biomechanics (03:17)
The scientific acknowledgment of human function dates back to ancient Greece and Aristotle. Ancient Romans such as Galen contributed to biomechanical theories. The principles of human anatomy were founded during the Renaissance.
Sir Isaac Newton and Eadweard Muybridge (02:18)
The three laws of motion are the foundation of modern biomechanics. Muybridge developed a way of recreating motion. Industrialization contributed to the advancement of biomechanics; kinesiology was the science of physical education.
Advancement of Biomechanics (02:48)
In the 1930s, Charles McCloy applied biomechanical principles to fitness, sports, and athletics. In the 1960s, the specialization of physical education occurred and biomechanics became a strong field of study. The formation of societies and organizations advanced the science of biomechanics in the U.S.
Introduction to Biomechanics (02:06)
Mechanics is the science of forces on objects; it has two branches. Kinetics and kinematics are the two areas of dynamics. Newton's three laws of motion are important to the study of human movement.
Newton's Three Laws of Motion (04:46)
Inertia is the ability of an object to resist changes in motion. Acceleration occurs when force acts on mass. The law of action and reaction indicates that every action has an equal and opposite reaction.
External Forces and Biomechanics (03:25)
External forces are necessary to figure out the motion of an object; they include gravity and friction. Consider horizontal and vertical force, and static equilibrium.
Linear Kinematics (04:32)
The three types of motion include translation, rotation, and a combination of the two; linear kinematics describes linear motion. Velocity is the rate of change of displacement. Linear impulse is the product of force and time; linear momentum is mass times velocity.
Angular Motion (03:45)
Work is the product of force and displacement; power is the amount of work done in a specific time period. Learn how forces produce translation and rotational motion. Forces and torques influence angular motion.
Angular Kinematics (03:17)
Angular kinematics is the force that produces change in angular motion" The moment of inertia is "the property of an object to resist changes in angular motion." In biomechanics, air and water are the two most common fluid mechanics examined.
Internal Forces and Biomechanics (03:49)
Once the body is exposed to a force, soft tissues attenuate the force; joint moment is the torque created by a muscle. Stress is force divided by area; exceeding the limit results in injury. Pressure is the distribution of force over an area; strain is the amount of deformation.
Human Muscles (02:30)
Agonist muscles create torque in the opposite direction of the joint action while stabilizer muscles hold a joint stable. Skeletal muscle generates force and changes length; a muscle makes larger forces when not allowed to shorten at a fast rate.
Nervous System Regulates Muscle Activity (03:59)
The motor unit is the fundamental unit of the nervous system; the efferent system directly activates muscles. The two types of proprioceptors are the muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organ. Sensory receptors that influence movement include: proprioceptors, cutaneous, and vestibular.
Applications of Biomechanics (03:46)
Biomechanics can be applied in several fields. Three areas where biomechanics can provide athlete information are: technique enhancement, injury prevention, and equipment design. Athletes can use biomechanics to gain a competitive edge.
Biomechanics Technology (01:47)
Computer simulation is a promising aspect of biomechanics. Measurement and quantification of movement, and staying abreast of new technologies are challenges in biomechanics.
Biomechanics in the 21st Century (01:55)
Biomechanics is an important study in several fields. Experts consider the future of biomechanics in sports and the need for biomechanists to have bio and mechanical knowledge.
Credits: Biomechanics (01:25)
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