Introduction to Psychometrics (02:45)
Psychometrics is the science of measuring intelligence and ability assessment. Psychologists study mental processes and behavior using a scientific based testing procedure. Explore different types of pseudoscience.
Psychometric Testing (03:07)
James McKeen Cattell established the first psychometrics laboratory— the first test was a 75 word free association test that evaluated intelligence. Other forefathers of the science include Theodore Simon, Alfred Binet, Charles Spearman, and L. L. Thurstone. There are over 8,000 psychometric instruments that are normalized to provide reliability and validity.
Research Ethics (00:31)
Psychometric Instruments must deliver informed consent, maintain confidentiality of test results, eliminate biases, and be evaluated by competent psychometricians.
Personality is the combination of characteristics that distinguishes an individual. Early testing correlated physical attributes with personality types. Cattell categorized personality into 16 distinct traits— Costa and Maccrea created the big five personality test.
Objective Tests (03:22)
Objective tests ask many questions, are scored to a standardized norm, and are more reliable than subjective testing, but rely on truthful answers. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is the most widely used instrument written for non-psychiatric testing— over 2 million individuals take the test per year.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (01:09)
MMPI-2 was created to help professionals identify personality characteristics and detect mental disorders. This test is composed of 567 true/false statements and requires an hour of time. It is written for a sixth grade reading level.
NEO Personality Inventory (01:15)
NEO-PI-R is based upon the Costa/McCrae five factor model. This test utilizes a Likert-type scale where participants select how much they agree or disagree with 240 statements.
Personality Assessment Inventory (00:47)
PAI was written as an alternative to the MMPI-2. It utilizes a four point ordinal scale of 344 statements. Written for a fourth grade reading level, it is used by clinical psychologists to determine custody assessment, mental disorder evaluations, personnel evaluation, and medical diagnosis.
Projective Tests (03:22)
Projective Tests are based upon Freudian psychology. The test taker is shown vague images to reveal unconscious needs, motives and conflicts. The Rorschach inkblot test determines if a patient has any psychopathic tendencies, is in control, and if treatment will be effective.
Thematic Apperception Test (03:14)
TAT uses images to diagnose personality disorders and screen candidates for stressful occupations, but is criticized for dated imagery. Wayne Holtzman describes why the Holtzman inkblot test is more objective and effective than other projective tests.
Forensic Psychology (01:50)
Forensic psychology is the study of psychology within the confines of the law. Psychometric instruments are used to help determine a person's ability and personality. When Gacono is working as a forensic psychologist, he relies on data to explain characteristics, but can never determine guilt or innocence.
Credits: Personality and Forensic Assessment: Psychometrics (00:25)
Credits: Personality and Forensic Assessment: Psychometrics
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