The world’s biggest refugee crisis since the Second World War is bringing tens of thousands of migrants to Central Europe – former citizens of Syria, Afghanistan, Sudan or Somalia fleeing from war, dictatorship or religious extremism. The fact that most of the refugees are Muslims stirs new debate over the future of European society. From (formerly atheist) leaders calling to the defence of European Christianity to economists pointing to the necessity of migrants as part of the future workforce, Europe is in the process of renegotiating its cultural identity. Earlier in 2015, the terrorist attack on the Charlie Hebdo office in Paris caused intense moments of rupture on the one hand and solidarity on the other. While religious and political leaders and European citizens of all backgrounds stood together against jihadist terrorism and anti-Semitism, extremist movements like Pegida in Germany and Front National in France mobilized followers with messages directed against all Muslims. According to Nilüfer Göle, the Charlie Hebdo attacks could prove to be a turning point in the relationship between European Islam and Western Modernity. A Turkish sociologist and public intellectual working in Paris, Nilüfer Göle studies Muslim identities and the role of Islam in the European public sphere. Instead of giving in to a clash of civilizations, she proposes to build on the “collective will to live together.” New secular principles can help in creating a shared common space of law and conversation – a process that could finally lead to a new community in which Muslims will play an important role. At Falling Walls, Nilüfer speaks about the intellectual’s duty to reconcile oppositions and explains how fewer walls can lead to more bridges.