Arguments of Interpretation (02:31)
After Jesus' death, instead of the Kingdom of God, the Christian church was established. Paula Fredriksen points out that it is difficult for people to recognize that Christianity began as an argument between Jewish interpretations.
Political Religious Geography (04:14)
Prior to the destruction of the temple in 70, the Pharisian, Essenian, and Sadducean parties were clear, but following the destruction, the Pharisees reorganized and the other two groups are lost track of. There were arguments between the groups about the temple as each group claimed to have the correct interpretation of scripture.
Excommunicated Judaeo Christians (02:13)
Nazarenes shared a desire to belong to Judaism, heirs to the movement of James, the Lord's brother. They fell between two distinctions, of Jews and of Christians, and were excommunicated by the Jews for that reason. They were rejected by the Christians for staying avowedly as Jews.
Marginalized Losers (02:57)
In the Mishna, a collection of Jewish texts, Judaeo Christianity is condemned. They were marginalized in the documentation and some disappear in history while others go on to create eastern churches, while others began movements that would also become marginalized.
Year 70 and Year 135 (04:00)
The Koran introduces Jesus as the prophet that precedes Muhammad. In 70, Titus' troops pillage the temple in Jerusalem, forcing the religion of Israel to be entirely reconstructed. This is where Christianity is born.
Destruction of Judaism (04:28)
After year 150 and the second Jewish war, Judaism was crushed in Palestine and Alexandria. Justin Martyr appears in Rome and speaks to the Jews through his Dialogue with Trypho text, which tells the Jews that they have not understood scripture, but he has, and can deliver it.
Justin Martyr (03:43)
Martyr was one of the first Christian intellectuals that did come from a Jewish background and is considered one of the first fathers of the church. Listen to a reading from Dialogue with Trypho.
Misinterpretations and Accusations (03:21)
Daniel Schwartz points out that Justin's text is based on the notion that the Jews misinterpreted their own texts. The Epistle of Barnabus says that the Old Testament is absolutely correct but that the Jews got it wrong, interpreting what was meant to be metaphorical as literal.
Formation of Christianity (02:25)
The Roman elite considered Christianity to be a superstition, an irrational movement with no past and no pedigree. Little material exists that is useful in understanding how Romans perceived Christians, but it is clear that they were cognizant of an original group's formation. Etienne Nodet explains the etymology of the word "Christian."
Handling the Christians (03:46)
Christians are, to the Romans, the descendants of a rebel man that the Romans executed. Pliny's letter proves that Romans had hostility towards Christians, especially because of their increasing influence. Pliny's famous letter was written to Trajan in the 2nd century, wondering how to treat the Christians whose status incomprehensible to the Romans.
Ideology of Separation (03:41)
Justin and the rest of the Christians fought with the Jews who did not share their faith, though they believe they lay claim to Israel. The point of separation between Christianity and Judaism does not exist.
True Israel (04:02)
Christianity was born from Judaism and early on called itself Verus Israel, thus stealing the Jews' identity. The majority of Israel did not recognize Jesus as a Messiah.
Hijacking the Scriptures (02:52)
Judaism was condemned as bad and wicked by Christianity, which would have baffled Jesus, but since Christianity stole the identity of Jewish people, it had to say that the Jews were the false ones, the impostors. Christianity took the place of Israel and, in a sense, destroyed it.
Appropriating Israel (04:08)
By year 100, in Jewish and in Christian literature, it is clear that there was competition for the version of Judaism. After the early 2nd century, Christianity is an independent religion, and it lays claim to Israel while rejecting Israel and appropriating the heritage of Israel for itself.
Imaginary Jew (01:53)
As time went on, the Jewish people became ostracized and Christians did not have an understanding of the Jews or what they went through. Emmanuelle Main explains how Christian sources portray a Jew that did not exist.
Credits: Verus Israel: Episode 10—Birth of Christianity (01:45)
Credits: Verus Israel: Episode 10—Birth of Christianity
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