"Viva Galvez" (03:32)
Troops of men in historical uniforms prepare for a re-enactment. Researcher Carlos Cologan examines letters. Washington D.C. is the birthplace of America's Independence.
Spanish in America (03:14)
Spain played a formative role in the United States' independence from Great Britain. South of the Mason Dixon line, all states in America were initially Spanish. Pensacola, Florida, is one of the oldest cities in America and was Spanish for 300 years.
General Bernardo de Galvez (03:54)
General Bernardo de Galvez is credited with helping the 13 American colonies defeat the English in the Revolutionary War. Visit the home where the Galvez family is believed to have lived.
Beginnings of Bernardo de Galvez (03:28)
Galvez came from humble beginnings with two brothers in an orphanage. The Bishop of Malaga noticed him reciting Latin in church and brought him to study at a seminary. He eventually got a law degree at the University of Salamanca.
Galvez Descendants (03:17)
Take a tour of the Galvez family crypt and its decorative statues. Cologan examines personal letters written by Galvez.
Fiesta de 4 Julio (03:19)
In Macharaviaya, Spain, a celebration is held for the Fourth of July. Performers dress up in historical garb and march in a parade. It is the only city in Europe that celebrates the American holiday.
Climbing the Social Ladder (02:53)
Historian Gonzalo Quintero describes the career path taken by Jose de Galvez that led him to serving as Minister of the Indies for over a decade. Bernardo de Galvez served as Viceroy of Spain, the highest position in the country.
Power of Spain (03:34)
In order to win independence from the English, the American colonies needed Spain, a powerful country that owned half the world at that time. Spain and France had pacts to aid one another if either country were invaded, as Benjamin Franklin was well aware.
Organized Rebellion (02:11)
Bernardo de Galvez assisted American troops in defeating the British by organizing the fight and controlling the river mouth into Pensacola. His relation to the Minister of Indies, his uncle, proved invaluable.
Swallowtail Fleet (03:35)
Ambassador Eduardo Garrigues relates the story of Bernardo de Galvez leading the Spanish army through the highly guarded Pensacola Bay. He had placed a swallowtail flag on the front of the ship, indicating authority.
Spain's Contribution (03:49)
Historians explain that Spain's contribution to the independence of the American colonies is not well known, but it was at least equal to France's contribution. Spain supplied the American colonies with weapons, ammunition, food, and medicine.
War Hero (03:14)
A friend of Bernardo's, Oliver Pollock, asked for a portrait of Bernardo to be painted so that he could deliver it to Philadelphia as a tribute to Bernardo. It was to be hung where Congress meets.
Spanish Blood (03:11)
Descendants of the men who were part of Bernardo's army visit their ancestors’ graves in Pensacola. A descendant of Manuel Gonzalez tells about his ten children and the large population of Gonzalez people in Pensacola.
Hispanic Population in America (03:55)
Hispanic people are currently the largest minority in the United States. Over the last 20 years, the conditions in America for people of Hispanic descent have improved.
Citizenship for Bernardo (04:06)
Bernardo is an important historical figure and role model for Spanish Americans today. Congress gave him honorary American citizenship to recognize his contribution to American Independence.
Continuous Timeline (03:51)
Galveston, Texas was named after Bernardo de Galvez. During Bernardo's time, records were kept in books instead of computers, but technology is the only change; the human experience remains the same.
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