"Just War": Introduction (02:41)
Tim Daborn states that shooting down the planes that crashed into the Twin Towers would have been for the greater good. Hear Winston Churchill's radio address announcing WWII. Theology students and a bishop reflect on just wars and the crusade mentality.
"Just War" (03:15)
Throughout history, millions of lives have been lost to war and acts of violence. The Church developed the Just War Theory, establishing three criteria for war— just authority, just cause, and just intention.
"Just War": Justification of Violence (02:51)
Christian rulers often used the Just War Theory to achieve political and strategic ends. An advanced system of laws binding all people and nations was put into place to stem brutality.
"Just War": Response to Terrorism (03:42)
In response to terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the U.S. launched Operation Enduring Freedom; the U.N. authorized the use of force in November. Some critics question if the war in Afghanistan has a reasonable chance of success and if it is a just war.
"Just War": Iraq War (02:26)
U.S. military planner Harlan Ullman explains the war policy. Critics question if the war was just.
"Just War": Moral Standards (03:48)
Any breach of the conditions of Just War Theory puts a state at risk for experiencing injustices it claims to fight against. Some critics believe the Just War Theory is outmoded. Internationally agreed upon principles governing the way war is waged are crucial. (Credits)
"Contempt of Conscience" (02:09)
Theology students share their thoughts on war. Activist Mark Thomas states that progressive laws are in place because of people with conscience. Robin Brookes withholds part of his taxes because he refuses to pay for war.
"Contempt of Conscience": War Tax Resisters (04:24)
The realities of war reduced the number of volunteers and compulsory conscription was necessary. A conscience clause gave conscientious objectors the right to claim exemption; some were imprisoned. Conscience objectors believe they face conscription in the form of taxes and some refuse to pay, facing various forms of punishment.
"Contempt of Conscience": Cluster Bombs (03:01)
Baghdad civilians are victims of cluster bomb attacks. A war tax resister wants taxes to go toward conflict resolution without the use of violence. (Credits)
"The Priest Who Blessed the Bombs" (01:56)
On the morning of August 6, 1945 in Hiroshima, citizens go about their morning routine despite the air raid siren warning. A single plane drops an atomic bomb over the city.
"The Priest Who Blessed the Bombs": Nuclear Weapons (07:38)
Fr. George Zabelka blessed the pilots who dropped bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki before the attack; he believes he made a terrible mistake. See images of the aftermath and hear from victims and theology students. Today, many countries possess nuclear weapons. (Credits)
"Holy War" (06:46)
Theology students reflect on war in the name of religion. Religions often send confusing messages about god and violence. The Crusades were fought 1095-1291; overtones occur in today's politics. (Credits)
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